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9th ENV Chapter 7.1 OUTLINE

SALINITY FRESH WATER MARINE The types of organisms in an aquatic ecosystem are mainly determined by the waters _______. As a result, aquatic ecosystems are divided into ________ and _______ ecosystems.
FRESHWATER _________ ecosystems include ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands.
WETLANDS _______ are areas of land that are periodically under water or whose soil contains a great deal of moisture.
NUTRIENTS Factors such as temperature, sunlight, oxygen, and __________ determine which organisms live in which area of the water.
GROUPED Aquatic ecosystems contains several types of organisms that are _________ by there location and by there adaptation.
AQUATIC Three groups _______ organisms include plankton, nekton, and benthos.
PLANKTON _________ are the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in the water, and can be microscopic animals called zooplankton or microscopic plants or algae called phytoplankton.
NEKTON ______ are all organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents.
BENTHOS ___________ are bottom-dwelling organisms of the sea or ocean attached to hard surfaces.
DECOMPOSERS ___________ are also aquatic organisms.
NATURALLY Lakes, ponds, and wetlands can form ___________ where groundwater reaches the Earths surface.
ARTIFICIAL Humans intentionally create ____________ lakes by damming flowing rivers and streams to use them for power, irrigation, water storage, and receration.
ZONES Lakes and ponds can be structured into horizontal and vertical ____. The types of organisms present depend on the amount of sunlight available.
LITTORAL ZONE The ___________ _____ is a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where light reaches the bottom and nutrients plants. Aquatic life is diverse and abundant.
MUD Some plants hare rooted in the ___ underwater with their upper leaves and stems above water.Other plants have floating leaves.
ALGAE In open water, plants, _______, and some bacteria capture solar energy to make their own food during photosynthesis.
DEEP Some bodies of fresh water have areas so ____ that there is too little for photosynthesis.
BACTERIA ______ live in the deep areas of freshwater. Fish adapted to cooler, darker water also live there.
BENTHIC ZONE Eventually, dead and decaying organisms reach the benthis zone. The _____________________ __________________ _is the region near the bottom of a pond, lake , or ocean which is inhabit ed by composers, insect larvae, and clams.
ADAPTATIONS Animals that live in lakes and ponds nhave _______________ that help them obtain what they need to survive.
BEETLES For example, water______________ beetles use the hairs under their bodies to trap surface air so that they can breathe during their dives for food,
BURROW And, in regions where lakes partially freeze in the winter, amphibians _________ partway into the mud to hibernate.
EUTROPHICATION _______________ is an increase in the amount of nutrients, such as nitrites, in an aquatic ecosystem.
GROW As the amount of plants and algae ___, the number of bacteria feeding on the decaying organisms also grow.
LARGE A lake that has ______ amounts of plants growth due to nutrients is known as a eutrophic lake.
LONG Lakes naturally become eutrophic over a ____ period of time.
WASTE However, eutrophication can be accelerated by runoff, such as rain, that can carry sewage, fertilizers, or animal _____ from land into bodies of water.
FRESH WATER __________ wetlands are areas of land that are covered with fresh water for part of the year.
MARSHES SWAMPS The two main types of freshwater wetlands are ________ and _______. Marshes contain non-woody plants, while swamps are dominated by woody plants.
FLORIDA Most freshwater wetlands are located in the southeastern United states, with the largest in the _________ Everglades.
FILTERS Wetlands perform several important environmental functions. Wetlands act like ________ or sponges that absorb and remove pollutants from the water. They also control flooding by absorbing extra water when rivers overflow.
WILDFIRES These areas provide a home for native and migratory ________________ in addition to feeding and spawning for many freshwater game fish.
LITTLE Freshwater marshes tend to occur on low, flat lands and have __________ water movement.
SHALLOW In _________ waters, plants root themselves in the rich bottom sediments while their leaves stick out above the surface of the water year-round.
SALINITY There are several kinds of marshes, each which is characterized by its __________. Brackish marshes have slightly salty water, while salt marshes contain saltier water.
BENTHIC The __________ zones of marshes are nutrient rich and contain plants, numerous types of decomposers, and scavengers.
MARSHES __________ also attract migratory birds from temperature and tropical habitats.
SWAMPS ___________ occur on flat, poorly drained land, often near streams and are dominated by woody shrubs or water loving trees.
MOISTURE Freshwater swamps are the ideal habitat for amphibians because of the continuous ___________. Birds are also attracted to hollow trees near or over the water.
REPTILES _________ are the predators of the swamp, eating almost any organism that crosses their path.
INSECTS Wetlands were previously considered to be wastelands that provide breeding grounds for ______ carrying insects.
DRAINED As a result, many have been _________, filled, and cleared for farms or residential and commercial development.
Created by: asimien907