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Cells 'First 20'

NCEA L2 Biology Cell Processes

TermDefinition
ATP The form of energy used by all living things.
cell The basic unit of life and the building block of all living things.
cell membrane A semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of all cells, controlling the entry and exit of substances.
cell wall Cellulose layer that surrounds plant cells (outside the cell membrane).
chloroplast Organelle which is the site of photosynthesis. Structure in plant cells which contains chlorophyll.
cristae Folds on the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They increase the surface area for reactions to occur on, increasing the amount of ATP which can be produced during respiration.
cytoplasm Jelly-like contents of the cell, located between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
endoplasmic reticulum A network of flattened tube-like membranes throughout the cell. May have ribosomes attached.
glycolysis The first stage of respiration, in which glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. This stage occurs in the cytoplasm of cells and does not require oxygen.
Golgi bodies System of folded membranes in the cell cytoplasm involved in producing and releasing secretions.
lysosome Membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes.
matrix The fluid-filled space enclosed by the inner membrane of mitochondria. It contains many enzymes which can function on the large surface area created by the cristae.
mitochondrion Organelle which is the site of respiration.
nucleus Structure in cell containing the genetic information which controls the activity of the cell.
organelles Various structures within the cytoplasm which have specific functions. Most are enclosed within their own membrane e.g. mitochondria, chloroplasts.
photosynthesis A process in plants in which carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose (and oxygen) using light energy.
respiration Process in which glucose is broken down to release energy in the form of ATP.
respiration word equation Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP)
ribosome Small organelle which is the site of protein synthesis. Free in the cytoplasm and the ‘rough’ of rough endoplasmic reticulum.
vacuole Liquid-filled cavity within the cell cytoplasm. Large in mature plant cells.
Created by: nztcowen