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Animal Physiology

Digestion, Secretion, and Absorption

Types of Gut tracts Intracellular: Protists, sponges extracellular: ---Incomplete Gut tract: 1 opening not as efficient, small meals. ex.) Corals ---Complete Gut tract: 2 openings, efficient, assembly line, larger body size.
Food compounds Proteins=Large Lipids=not water soluble starch, cellulose= large and not very water soluble.
Ways to Digest 1.) Hydrolysis- Negative free energy but slow (favorable) 2.) Enzymes- Faster
Secretions (Mouth)- Saliva 1.) Mucin -glycoprotein, helps lubricate  2.) Lysozyme- break down cell walls of bacteria 3.) Alpha Amylase- breaks down carbohydrates (starch)
Secretions (stomach) 1.) mucus- Goblet cell Soluble- (thin) Visible- (not soluble, thicker) 2.) Intrinsic factor- parietal cell b12 for RBC Shortage= Pernicious anemia
Secretions (stomach) Cont. 3.) pepsinogen- from chief cell proenzyme: not in active form. becomes active when HCl present (pepsin when HCl is around) 10-20% protein in meal digested Regulation: Vagus, Secretin, low pH
Vagus Nerve 10th cranial Nerve, regulates pepsinogen
Secretin Hormone that initiates release of pepsin If pepsin was directly made it would destroy the cells.
Secretions (HCl from Parietal cell) 1.) CO2 +H2O= H2CO3 2.) H2CO3--> HCO3- + H+ (HCO3- out blood) ( Exchange Cl- in) 3.) Cl- passively diffuses out into lumen 4.) H+ out to lumen, K+ exchange in (active) 5.) K+ leaks out passively
HCl secretion Phases Cephalic, Gastric, Intenstinal
Cephalic See, smell, Taste, Imagine
Gastric Stretch, caffeine, alcohol, protein
Intestinal Peptides, Chyme
HCl Secretion Regulation Ceaphalic= vagues nerve (Nervous system) Gastric= Vagus, gastrin (Hormone) Intestinal= Gastrin (-) feedback: very low pH, fatty acids.
Pancreas( Endocrine) 3%, secrete straight to blood stream. Insulin- Lowers blood sugar Glucagon- Raises blood sugar
Pancreas (exocrine) 97% mass of organ, has ducts Aqeuous fraction Enzymatic fraction
Aqeuous fraction (intestine) H2O, HCO3- ( neutralize acid) stimulated by secretin --> pepsinogen secretion
Enzymatic fraction Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, a-amylase, lipases. Stimulated by CCK ( Cholecystokinen) ----> hormone
Gall bladder Stores bile from liver
Bile regulated by CCK, concentrated 5-20X, Emulsifies lipids (physical digestion), acts as a detergent big droplets---> small droplets.
BIle acid Very important for emulsification
Lecithen lipid helps mobilize cholesterol. Ex.) soybeans, egg yokes.
Cholesterol Excretion
Billirubin Heme group of hemoglobin comes from old red blood cells.
Bicarbonate and water makes aqueous and neutralizes.
Bile pigments Billrubin: Green/black in bile, brown in feces, yellow in urine.
Problems Gallstones can lead to obstructive jaundice, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Cirrhosis
Obstructive jaundice Yellow tinge to skin and eyes
Hepatitis A Sewage, contaminated water, shellfish
Hepatits B Blood
Cirrhosis Alcohol abuse, liver death
Digestive physiology (feeding strategy case studies) Wax- aquatic (more common), terrestrial Cellulose- Invertebrates, Foregut, and hindgut fermentation
Aquatic wax Primary consumers: copepod crustaceans , store wax Secondary consumers: fish and birds, eat copepods.
Marine birds- Petrel Feed on marine animals containing wax, less than 1 % of wax excreted
Albatross and petrel stomach adaptations Lipid layer ( top), and water later (bottom) , lipids stored, used when bird is on nest.
Terrestrial Wax Beeswax, wax glands, honeycomb
Honey guide birds Eats wax and larvae
Ratel Or honey badger East honey
Mbuti Tribe of Pygmies Follow honeyguides, eat honey
Experiment: Domestic chicks 1.) feed wax: dont survive 2.) feed wax + bacteria: survive
Cellulose digestion Large, insoluble, yet used as an energy source.
Invertebrates Cellulase enzyme ( silverfish) or Symbiotic protists and bacteria (termites)
Termite Experiment Expose Flagellates to O2, termites cant digest their food
Cellulose Digestion ( Foregut Fermentation) Cows, Camels, kangaroo, hoatzin. Rumen: stomach chamber, chew cud, Anaerobic fermentation with symbionts, 70 % of energy needs from bacteria Cellulose--> glucose---> 2 ATP + lactic acid Bacteria use glycolytic pathway
what if bacteria were aerobic? Would it be better? No, because the bacteria would receive all the energy(ATP).
Calf stomachs Enlarged rumen on hay-fed animal compared to milk fed.
Fistulated Cow Can sample rumen microbes
Cellulose Digestion ( Hindgut Fermentation) Horse, rabbit, lemming, willow ptarmigan.
Hindgut anatomy: Human Colon- large intestine, Small intestine Cecum w/appendix- blind pouch
What is more efficient Hindgut or foregut Foregut fermentaion is more efficient, because it is earlier in the process, small intestine, has more time for absorption. Hindgut more water is conserved, doesnt digest/ break down food all the way. Ex.) cow poop vs. Horse poop.
Rabbit Coprophagy Feces (ignored) Cecal pellets) Consumed
Created by: Neiller4
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