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DNA & Biotechnology


During DNA replication, what two processes must occur before the two strands of a DNA molecule can separate? The hydrogen bonds between the base pairs must be broken, and the molecule must unwind.
What must happen to a DNA molecule before RNA polymerase can make RNA? The DNA molecule must be separated into two strands.
How are the selective breeding techniques of hybridization and inbreeding opposites? . In hybridization, organisms with dissimilar traits are crossed. In inbreeding, organisms with similar traits are crossed.
What is a polyploid organism? A polyploid organism is one that has many sets of chromosomes.
Why would breeders want to increase a population’s mutation rate? . Increasing a population’s mutation rate would increase the chances of individuals within the population having desirable traits, which can then be selected for using breeding techniques.
What is the likely effect of treating a sample of DNA with more than one kind of restriction enzyme? Treating a DNA sample with more than one kind of restriction enzyme will probably produce more DNA fragments of different sizes.
What does polymerase chain reaction enable scientists to make? . Polymerase chain reaction enables scientists to make many copies of a gene.
What are structures C and D in Figure 13–1, and what is their significance? Structures C and D are the sticky ends of a DNA fragment, which allow the fragment to be inserted into a piece of DNA that has the same sticky ends.
Why do transgenic bacteria that have the gene for human insulin produce insulin in great abundance? Bacteria reproduce quickly. The more transgenic bacteria there are, the more insulin is produced.
Why does the human insulin gene produce the same protein in humans and in transgenic bacteria? It is the gene that determines what protein is produced, not the organism in which it is found.
Why might different alleles of the same gene produce different fragments when treated with the same restriction enzyme? Different alleles may have different DNA sequences that include different numbers of copies of the enzyme’s recognition site as well as different locations of the recognition site within the allele.
Why do scientists use sections of DNA that have little or no known function to do DNA fingerprinting? These sections of DNA vary widely from person to person.
Why are viruses used in gene therapy? Viruses are used in gene therapy because they can transfer genes into human cells.
What is the purpose of the process is illustrated in Figure 12–5? Protein Synthesis
What is the relationship between the codons and anticodons in Figure 12–5? How is this relationship important? The codons and anticodons have complementary nitrogenous bases, allowing them to base pair. Because the kind of amino acid attached to a tRNA depends on the anticodon, the base pairing between the anticodons and codons brings a specific sequence of AA
In Figure 12–5, what will happen after the ribosome joins the methionine and phenylalanine? The bond between the methionine and its tRNA will be broken. The tRNA will move away from the ribosome, allowing it to bind with another methionine. The ribosome will move down the mRNA to the next codon.
g In Figure 13–4, why was the nucleus removed from the egg cell? To make sure that all of the DNA in the clone is from a single sheep.
g From which labeled structure in Figure 12–4 is structure D made? Identify that labeled structure. Structure D is made from structure A, which is one of the strands of DNA.
Identify structure F in Figure 12–4. What does it specify? Structure F is a codon that specifies the amino acid alanine.
What is structure E in Figure 12–4? What does it specify? Structure E is the start codon, which specifies the amino acid methionine.
What would happen to structure F in Figure 12–4 if structure C were deleted? The base sequence of the codon (structure F) would change from GCU to GUG.
In Figure 12–4, what effect would the deletion of structure C have on the process that occurs during step Y? The deletion of structure C would shift the reading frame of the codons during translation. As a result, the sequence of the amino acids that make up the growing polypeptide might change.
In Figure 13–2, what do the bands shown in B consist of? The bands consist of DNA fragments.
Which group of bands in Figure 13–2 moved faster, C or D? Why? The bands in group D moved faster because they consist of smaller DNA fragments.
What is occurring in A in Figure 13–2? The restriction enzyme is cutting the DNA into fragments.
In Figure 13–2, why are the bands in B moving toward the positive end of the gel? The bands consist of DNA, which is negatively charged.
In Figure 13–2, were the three DNA samples shown in A identical? Explain your answer. No, the DNA samples were not identical because they produced different patterns of bands on the gel.
Describe the structure of a DNA molecule. A DNA molecule has the shape of a double helix. Each strand of the helix is a chain of nucleotides. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases. The nitrogenous bases form hydrogen bonds with one another in pairs.
Created by: lillylulu
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