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TEST 2

Cardiac drugs

QuestionAnswer
Stroke Volume (SV) Amount of blood ejected with each contraction. Average stroke volume is about 70 mL per beat
Cardiac Output (CO) Amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in 1 minute. Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (SV) times the heart rate (HR). Normal cardiac output is 4-8 L/min. SV X HR = CO
SV X HR = CO If cardiac output is poor, oxygen and nutrients do not reach cells as needed, impairing tissue perfusion.
Right ventricle pumps blood into the low-pressure, low-resistance pulmonary vascular system; therefore the pressures generated by the right ventricle are fairly low.
Left ventricle pumps blood into the higher-pressure systemic arterial system, generating much higher pressure and requires more work.
Arterial Circulation Moves blood from the heart to the tissues, maintaining a constant flow to the capillary beds. Pressure differences and resistance determine blood flow through the vessels. Blood always moves from higher pressure to lower pressure.
Greater the difference between pressures... the greater the blood flow.
Blood Pressure Force exerted on arterial walls by the blood flowing within the vessels.
Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR) Impedes or opposes blood flow to the tissues. PVR is determined by: Viscosity/thickness of the blood. Blood vessel length & diameter
Mean Arterial Pressure Maintains blood flow to the tissues throughout the cardiac cycle. It is a product of cardiac output times PVR. CO X PVR = MAP
Blood Transport medium within the cardiovascular system. Responsible for: Transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones to the cells and metabolic wastes from the cells for elimination Regulating body temp, pH and fluid volume
Heart failure Develops when the heart is unable to keep up with the body's need for oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.
Signs of heart failure include Pulmonary congestion; adventitious breath sounds Shortness of breath Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) Increased heart rate S3 heart sound Increased respiratory rate Nocturia Orthopnea Distended neck veins
Conditions that increase afterload: Conditions that affect myocardial function: " Myocardial infarction " Cardiomyopathy " Coronary artery disease
Conditions that increase preload: Hypervolemia Valvular disorders such as mitral regurgitation Congenital defects such as patent ductus arteriosus
Conditions that increase after load: Hypertension Atherosclerosis
Conditions that affect myocardial function Myocardial infarction Cardiomyopathy Coronary artery disease
Ischemia Lack of blood supply-obstructed circulation. Partial obstruction in coronary arteries causes MI Full obstruction in coronary arteries causes a MI Partial/Full obstruction in cerebral vessels cause a TIA
Promoting vascular circulation Elevate leg to promote venous return to the heart Avoid pillows under knees or more than 15 degrees of knee flexion to improve blood flow. Encourage leg exercises for a client on bed rest and promote ambulation as soon as possible.
Promoting cardiac circulation Position the client in high-fowlers position to decrease preload and reduce pulmonary congestion Monitor intake and output. Fluid restriction may be required for those with severe heart failure
Heparin Heparin (anticoagulant) used in patients after surgeries. Also in patients at risk for thromboembolus due to prolonged bed rest from acute illness.
Heparin administration Given sub-q either once day or every 12 hours Client should be lying down for administration Do not massage site - bruises Avoid aspirins or NSAIDS
Created by: KrisRN