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Biology chapt 6

Biology chapter 6

energy Capacity to do work and bring about change; occurs in a variety of forms.
kinetic energy Energy associated with motion.
potential energy Stored energy in a potentially usable form, as a result of location or spatial arrangement.
chemical energy Energy associated with the interaction of atoms in a molecule.
mechanical energy  When a moose walks, it converts chemical energy into a type of kinetic energy 
heat Type of kinetic energy associated with the random motion of molecules.
Laws of themodynamics Two laws explaining energy and its relationships and exchanges.
First law of themodynamics The law of conservation of energy- states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.
Second law of themodynomics States that energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of unable energy.
entropy Measure of disorder or randomness in a system.
metabolism The sum of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
reactant Substance that participates in a reaction.
product Substance that forms as a result of a reaction.
free energy Energy in a system that is capable of performing work.
exergonic reaction Chemical reaction that releases energy; opposite of endergonic reaction.
endergonic reaction Chemical reaction that requires an input of energy; opposite of exergonic reaction.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP.
mole The molecular weight of a molecule expressed in grams; contains 6.023 X 10 ^23 molecules.
Chemical work. ATP supplies the energy needed to synthesize macromolecules (anabolism) that make up the cell, and therefore the organism.
Transport work ATP supplies the energy needed to pump substances across the plasma membrane.
Mechanical work ATP supplies the energy needed to permit muscles to contract, cilia and flagella to beat, chromosomes to move, and so forth. In most cases, ATP is the immediate source of energy for these processes.
enzyme Organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape.
ribozyme RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme that can catalyze chemical reactions.
metabolic pathway Series of linked reactions, beginning with a particular reactant and terminating with an end product.
substrate Reactant in an enzyme-controlled reaction.
active site Region of an enzyme where the substrate binds and where the chemical reaction occurs.
induced fit model Change in the shape of an enzyme’s active site that enhances the fit between the active site and its substrate(s).
denatured Loss of a protein’s or an enzyme’s normal shape, so that it no longer functions; usually caused by a less than optimal pH and temperature.
cofactor Nonprotein assistant required by an enzyme in order to function; many cofactors are metal ions, others are coenzymes.
coenzyme Nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound.
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) Coenzyme in oxidation-reductions that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADH + H ^+ as oxidation of substrates occurs. During cellular respiration, NADH carries electrons to the electron transport chain in mitochondria
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) Coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADPH + H^+. During photosynthesis, NADPH participates in the reduction of carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
vitamin Organic nutrient that is required in small amounts for metabolic functions. Vitamins are often part of coenzymes.
enzyme inhibition Means by which cells regulate enzyme activity; may be competitive or noncompetitive inhibition.
noncompetitive inhibition Form of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor binds to an enzyme at a location other than the active site; while at this site, the enzyme shape changes, the inhibitor is unable to bind to its substrate, and no product forms.
allosteric site Site on an allosteric enzyme that binds an effector molecule; binding alters the activity of the enzym
competitive inhibition Form of enzyme inhibition where the substrate and inhibitor are both able to bind to the enzyme’s active site. Only when the substrate is at the active site will product form.
redox reaction A paired set of chemical reactions in which one molecule gives up electrons (oxidized) while another molecule accepts electrons (reduced); also called an oxidation-reduction reaction.
OIL RIG Oxidation Is Loss Reduction Is Gain
Created by: Haleyannestes
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