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Biology chapt 3

Chapter 3

organic chemistry Branch of science that deals with organic molecules, including those that are unique to living organisms.
inorganic chemistry Branch of science that studies the chemical reactions and properties of all of the elements, except hydrogen and carbon
biomolecule Organic molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats.
functional group Specific cluster of atoms attached to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules that enters into reactions and behaves in a predictable way.
isomer Molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structure, and therefore a different shape.
polymer Macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers; for example, a polypeptide is a polymer of monomers called amino acids.
monomer Small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer—e.g., glucose is a monomer of starch.
dehydration reaction Chemical reaction in which a water molecule is released during the formation of a covalent bond.
hydrolysis reaction Splitting of a chemical bond by the addition of water, with the H+ going to one molecule and the OH- going to the other.
carbohydrate Class of organic compounds that typically contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; includes the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
monosaccharide Simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis— e.g., glucose; also, any monomer of the polysaccharides.
pentose Five-carbon monosaccharide. Examples are deoxyribose found in DNA and ribose found in RNA.
hexose Any monosaccharide that contains six carbons; examples are glucose and galactose.
glucose Six-carbon monosaccharide; used as an energy source during cellular respiration and as a monomer of the structural polysaccharides.
ribose Pentose sugar found in RNA.
deoxyribose Pentose sugar found in DNA.
disaccharide Sugar that contains two monosaccharide units; e.g., maltose.
polysaccharide Polymer made from carbohydrate monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
starch Storage polysaccharide found in plants that is composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion with few side chains.
glycogen Storage polysaccharide found in animals; composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches.
cellulose Polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls.
chitin Strong but flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and in the cell walls of fungi.
peptidoglycan Polysaccharide that contains short chains of amino acids; found in bacterial cell walls.
lipid Class of organic compounds that tend to be soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats and oils.
fat Organic molecule that contains glycerol and three fatty acids; energy storage molecule.
oil Triglyceride, usually of plant origin, that is composed of glycerol and three fatty acids and is liquid in consistency due to many unsaturated bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids.
triglyceride Neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty acids; typically involved in energy storage.
fatty acid Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
saturated fatty acid Fatty acid molecule that lacks double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chain. The chain bears the maximum number of hydrogens possible.
unsaturated fatty acid Fatty acid molecule that contains double bonds between some carbons of its hydrocarbon chain; contains fewer hydrogens than a saturated hydrocarbon chain.
trans fat Unsaturated fatty acid chain in which the configuration of the carbon-carbon double bonds is such that the hydrogen atoms are across from each other, as opposed to being on the same side (cis).
glycerol Three-carbon carbohydrate with three hydroxyl groups attached; a component of fats and oils.
Phospholipids Basically triglycerides, except that in place of the third fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.
steroid Type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings—e.g., cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.
wax Sticky, solid, water-repellent lipid consisting of many long-chain fatty acids usually linked to long-chain alcohols.
protein Polymer of amino acids; often consisting of one or more polypeptides and having a complex three-dimensional shape.
Metabolism Enzyme proteins bring reactants together and thereby speed chemical reactions in cells. They are specific for one particular type of reaction and function best at specific body temperatures and pH.
Support Some proteins have a structural function. For example, keratin makes up hair and nails, while collagen gives strength to ligaments, tendons, and skin.
Transport Channel and carrier proteins in the plasma membrane regulate what substances enter and exit cells. Other proteins transport molecules in the blood of animals; hemoglobin is a complex protein that transports oxygen to tissues and cells.
Defense Antibodies are proteins of our immune system that combine with foreign substances, called antigens. Antibodies bind and prevent antigens from destroying cells and upsetting homeostasis.
Regulation Some hormones are proteins that regulate how cells behave. The hormone insulin regulates how much glucose is in the blood and in cells; the presence of growth hormone during childhood and adolescence determines the height of an individual.
Motion The contractile proteins actin and myosin allow parts of cells to move and cause muscles to contract. All cells contain proteins that move cell components to different internal locations. Without such proteins, cells would not be able to function.
amino acid Organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules.
peptide bond Type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids.
peptide Two or more amino acids joined together by covalent bonding.
polypeptide Polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
denatured Loss of a protein’s or an enzyme’s normal shape, so that it no longer functions; usually caused by a less than optimal pH and temperature.
prion Infectious particle consisting of protein only and no nucleic acid.
nucleic acid Polymer of nucleotides; both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
rNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in many forms, including messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
coenzyme Nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
nucleotide Monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
complementary base pairing Hydrogen bonding between particular purines and pyrimidines; responsible for the structure of DNA, and some RNA, molecules.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP.
Created by: Haleyannestes
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