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Biology test

biology test 1_ chapter 1

biology The branch of science that is concerned with the study of life and living organisms.
atom Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.
molecule Union of two or more atoms of the same element; also, the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
Cell The smallest unit of life that displays all the properties of life; composed of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane
multicellular Organism composed of many cells; usually has organized tissues, organs, and organ systems.
tissue Group of similar cells combined to perform a common function.
organ Combination of two or more different tissues performing a common function.
organ system Group of related organs working together; examples are the digestive and endocrine systems.
organism An individual; complex indivduals contain organ systems.
population Group of organisms of the same species occupying a certain area and sharing a common gene pool.
community Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment.
ecosystem Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by a flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients.
biosphere Zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found.
energy Capacity to do work and bring about change; occurs in a variety of forms.
metabolism The sum of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
photosynthesis Process, usually occurring within chloroplasts, that uses solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.
homeostasis Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulating mechanisms.
reproduce To produce a new individual of the same kind.
development Process of regulated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues.
gene Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in diploid organisms, typically two alleles are inherited—one from each parent.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
mutations Any change made in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; source of new variation for a species.
adaptation Species modification in structure, function, or behavior that makes a species more suitable to its environment.
evolution Genetic change in a species over time, resulting in the development of genetic and phenotypic differences that are the basis of natural selection; descent of organisms from a common ancestor.
natural selection Mechanism of evolutionary change caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment.
taxonomy Branch of biology concerned with identifying, describing, and naming organisms
systematics Study of the diversity of life for the purpose of understanding the evolutionary relationships between species.
species Group of similarly constructed organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; organisms that share a common gene pool; the taxon at the lowest level of classification.
genus One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; contains those species that are most closely related through evolution.
family One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon located above the genus level.
order One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon located above the family level.
class One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above the order level.
phylum One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon located above the class level.
kingdom One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above phylum.
domain Bacteria One of the three domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that differ from archaea because they have their own unique genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics.
domain Archaea One of the three domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats and have unique genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics; its members are sometimes referred to as
domain Eukarya One of the three domains of life, consisting of organisms with eukaryotic cells; includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
prokaryote Organism that lacks the membrane-bound nucleus and the membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes.
eukaryotic cell (eukaryote) Type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and membranous organelles; found in organisms within the domain Eukarya.
Protists The group of eukaryotic organisms that are not a plant, fungus, or animal. Protists are generally a microscopic complex single cell; they evolved before other types of eukaryotes in the history of Earth.
plants Multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes that increasingly became adapted to live on land.
fungus (pl., fungi) Eukaryotic saprotrophic decomposer; the body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium.
animals Multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryote that undergoes development to achieve its final form. In general, animals are mobile organisms, characterized by the presence of muscular and nervous tissue.
binomial nomenclature Scientific name of an organism, the first part of which designates the genus and the second part of which designates the specific epithet.
scientific method Process by which scientists formulate a hypothesis, gather data by observation and experimentation, and come to a conclusion.
observation Initial step in the scientific method that often involves the recording of data from an experiment or natural event.
inductive reasoning Using specific observations and the process of logic and reasoning to arrive at general scientific principles.
hypothesis Supposition established by reasoning after consideration of available evidence; it can be tested by obtaining more data, often by experimentation.
experiment A test of a hypothesis that examines the influence of a single variable. Often involves both control and test groups.
deductive reasoning The use of general principles to predict specific outcomes. Often uses “if … then” statements.
prediction Step of the scientific process that follows the formulation of a hypothesis and assists in creating the experimental design.
experimental design Methodology by which an experiment will seek to support the hypothesis.
experimental variable Factor of the experiment being tested.
responding variable Result or change that occurs when an experimental variable is utilized in an experiment.
control Sample that goes through all the steps of an experiment but does not contain the variable being tested; a standard against which the results of an experiment are checked.
model Simulation of a process that aids conceptual understanding until the process can be studied firsthand; a hypothesis that describes how a particular process could be carried out.
data (sing., datum) Facts or information collected through observation and/or experimentation.
principle Theory that is generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists; also called a law.
law Universal principle that describes the basic functions of the natural world.
technology Application of scientific knowledge for a practical purpose.
biodiversity Total number of species, the variability of their genes, and the communities in which they live.
extinction Total disappearance of a species or higher group.
climate change Recent changes in the Earth’s climate; evidence suggests that this is primarily due to human influence, including the increased release of greenhouse gases.
global warming Predicted increase in the Earth’s temperature due to human activities that promote the greenhouse effect.
Created by: Haleyannestes