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Bioterrorism

Nursing Level IV Test 3

QuestionAnswer
Definition of Bio-terrorism Intentional release of an infectious agent for the purpose of causing harm to a large number of people.
Name 3 roles of the nurse during a bio-terrorism attack 1) Recognize early s/s. 2) Provide accurate information. 3) Be involved in the emergency management plan.
Anthrax scientific name Bacillus Anthracis
Small pox scientific name Variola Virus
Botulism scientific name Clostridium botulinum
Plague scientific name Yersinia pestis
Tularemia scientific name Francisella tularensis
Hemorrhagic Fever scientific name Ebola & Marburg
Bacillus Anthracis: type of precautions Standard
How is Bacillus Anthracis trasmitted? Inhaled, cutaneous (open wound), intestinal (consumed)
Is Bacillus Anthracis transmitted person to person? Not transmitted person to person (unless it is contracted directly through contact with one persons open skin lesion to another persons open skin lesion).
Treatment for Bacillus Anthracis? Yes, Antibiotic as well as an antitoxin.
Who receives the antitoxin for Bacillus Anthracis and what are the requirements? High risk individuals (Military and people that are in contact with hoofed animals). Must be 18 y/o and NOT pregnant.
S/S of Bacillus Anthracis if contracted by inhalation? (most deadly) SOB, fever, N/V, shock, respiratory failure, hemorrhage, lung tissue destruction
S/S of Bacillus Anthracis if contracted by cutaneous transmission? Black depressed ulcer.
S/S of Bacillus Anthracis if contracted by ingestion (intestinal)? Diarrhea and hematemisis (bloody vomit)
True or False: you are immune to Bacillus Anthracis if you survive the disease? False. You are not immune.
What is the survival rate of a person infected with Bacillus Anthracis if they DO NOT receive treatment? 10%-15% survival rate
What is the survival rate of a person infected with Bacillus Anthracis if early treatment with antibiotics IS received? 55% survival rate
Variolla: type of precautions? Droplet precautions --> highly transmittable
How is Variolla transmitted? More commonly by direct contact with fluids. It is rarely inhaled.
Treatment for Variola? Vaccine must be given within 3-5 days of exposure, otherwise, there is no treatment if rash (pustules) is already present. Supportive care.
Vaccination for Variola? Describe why or why not, and when? Vaccine is available, very few have received it, because it's been eradicated. Must be given within 3-5 days post exposure for treatment.
Incubation period of Variola? 1 week
Desribe the post-exposure treatment timing or Variola? Vaccinated within 3-5 days of exposure is effective treatment. Vaccinated 4-7 days after exposure lessens the severity. Rash appears within 7 days --> no treatment.
What sign does the Variola virus present? Pox: pustular vesicle lesions.
Where do Variola skin lesions appear, and what is unique about them? Pox appear on the head and extremities, they are all in the same stage of development.
Symptoms of Variola? Headache. Fever. Backache. Vomiting.
When is Variola contagious? Most contagious during the rash. Continuously contagious until scabs fall off.
Clostridium botulinum: type of precautions? Standard precautions
How is Clostridium botulinum transmitted? Ingestion (home canned goods or honey ingested by infants). Air, Food, or Water --> It IS NOT transmitted person to person.
What is Clostridium botulinum? Neurotoxin producing bacteria
Symptoms of Clostridium botulinum. Paralyzes muscles, respiratory failure (requires ventilation for weeks to months).
Treatment for Clostridium botulinum? Antitoxin, mechanical ventilation, supportive care.
Vaccination for Clostridium botulinum? No vaccine.
S/S of Clostridium botulinum. Drooping eyelids, weakness in trunk and limbs, difficulty speaking, seeing, swallowing. Paralysis --> Respiratory Failure.
Clostridium botulinum is often confused with what other syndrom? Guillian-barre syndrome: a disorder in which the body's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system.
Yersinia pestis: type of precautions? Droplet precautions. Exposed persons are contageous within 1-6 days after exposure.
How is Yersinia pestis transmitted? Bacterium found on rodents and their fleas are responsible for spreading the bubonic plague. It can also be inhaled by aerosol, as well as being spread person to person.
Treatment for Yersinia pestis? Early antibiotics (within 24 hour of exposure)
Vaccination for Yersinia pestis? No vaccine.
S/S of Yersinia pestis? A bubo (a sore caused by the bacteria) and extreme lymph node pain and swelling.
Types (2) of Bubonic Plague? Pneumonic (Rapid death 2-4-days --> Respiratory failure, shock, chest pain, bloody/water sputum). Septicemic (Most deadly).
Francisella tularensis: type of precautions? Standard precautions.
What is Francisella tularensis also known as? Rabbit fever. Bacteria has been found on rodents, rabbits, and hares.
How is Francisella tularensis transmitted? Ticks and deer-flies spread the disease to humans. Skin contact with infected animals. Ingestion of contaminated water. Inhaled aerosols/dust. It is NOT spread person to person.
Vaccine for Francisella tularensis? No vaccine.
Treatment for Francisella tularensis? Early antibiotics.
S/S of Francisella tularensis? Flu-like symptoms, red swollen eyes, swollen painful lymph, pneumonia (hemorrhagic inflammation of the respiratory airway).
Name three hemorrhagic fevers Ebola, Marburg, Lassa
Hemorrhagic fever: type of precautions? Airborne
How is a hemorrhagic fever transmitted? Humans are not natural hosts for these viruses. Rodents, mosquitos, tick, etc. spread it when contact with bodily fluids takes place. Person to Person contagious.
Treatment for hemorrhagic fever? No vaccine, or cure. Treatment includes supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, management).
S/S of hemorrhagic fever? Damaged vascular system --> homeostasis is impaired. N/V, fever, Headache, Shock, Fatigue/exhaustion, Dizziness, Muscle aches, Loss of strength.
What causes Acute Radiation Syndrome? Mix of explosives & radio-active material
What is a "dirty bomb"? Explodes radioactive powder or pellets, contaminating a public area.
Phase 1 of acute radiation syndrome? Prodromal (N/V, diarrhea) last minutes to days.
Phase 2 of acute radiation syndrome? Latent (Looks and feels healthy) lasts hours to weeks.
Phase 3 of acute radiation syndrome? Illness (Bone marrow suppression, decreased RBC, WBC, platelets, with GI and CNS involvement)
Phase 4 of acute radiation syndrome? Recovery (or death) lasts weeks to years.
Survival rate of Acute Radiation Syndrome without treatment? 50% death rate.
Treatment for Acute Radiation Therapy? Fluids, prevent infection, remove clothes, wash skin, debride wounds, give potassium iodine (KI).
Created by: Jnford15