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Forces That Shape

Forces That Shape the Earth; 6th Grade

Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions shearing
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume stress
In a normal fault, the part of the fault that lies below the other part footwall
Which type of stress force produces reverse faults? compression
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level Plateau
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers and earthquake focus
The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding the ground like an accordion P waves
S waves are also known as ____________ secondary waves
Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move ____________ slower
In what direction do seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake? away from the focus
What waves can travel through both liquids and solids? P waves
What does a seismograph record? the ground movements caused by seismic waves
To tell how far an earthquake's epicenter is from a seismograph, scientists measure the difference between what? the arrival times of the P waves and S waves
What is the minimum number of seismograph stations required in order to determine the exact location of an earthquake's epicenter? 3
What is the correct order, from first to last, in which different types of seismic waves arrive at a seismograph? P waves, S waves, surface waves
Before lava reaches the surface, the molten material is called ___________ magma
The volcanoes along converging oceanic plate boundaries may form _______________ an island arc
A long tube in the ground that connects the magma chamber to Earth's surface pipe
What provides the force that causes magma to erupt to the surface? dissolved gasses trapped in the magma
If a volcano's magma is high is silica, the volcano will probably __________________ erupt explosively
What triggers the small earthquakes that occur around a volcano before eruption? upward movement of magma
Tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash are called _________________ composite volcanoes
When many layers of thin, runny lava build up a high, level area, the result is a _______________ lava plateau
The huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain is called a _______________ caldera
When ash, cinders, and bombs build up in a steep pile around a volcano's vent, the result is a ___________________ cinder cone volcano
When magma hardens in a volcano's pipe, the result will eventually be a landform called a _________________ volcanic neck
When goundwater heated by magma rises to the surface and collects in a natural pool, it is called a _________________ hot spring
In volcanic areas, groundwater heated by magma is a source of ___________________ geothermal energy
The stress force that pulls on the crust where two plates are moving apart tension
The stress force that causes a mass of rock to move in opposite directions shearing
A fault that is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to move over the foot wall reverse fault
The block of rock that lies above a fault hanging wall
Shearing creates __________________ faults. strike-slip
Vibrations that move through the ground carrying the energy released during an earthquake seismic waves
On a map, geologists draw circles around seismograph stations in order to determine the location of an earthquake's _________________ epicenter
Stress that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle tension
Molten material that leaves the volcano's vent lava
The bowl-shaped area around a volcano's central vent crater
How does a shield volcano form? repeated lava flows build up a broad, gently sloping mountain
How does a lava plateau form? lava seeps out of several cracks and then travels a distance before cooling
How does a caldera form? huge hole is left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain
What are the three stages of a volcano? Active, Dormant, Extinct
What is an active volcano? It is erupting or may erupt in the near future
Describe a dormant volcano. It may awaken in the future and become active
Describe an extinct volcano. It is unlikely to erupt again
Created by: Pacelli