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Allosteric enzyme An enzyme that has multiple and regulatory active sites.It controls the metabolic pathways through environmental signals, including the final product.Its kinetics are complex
Reversible inhibitors Competive, uncompetitive,and noncompetive
Irreversible inhibitors Group specific reagents,affinity labels,suicide inhibitors, transition state analogs
Reversible inhibition characteristics -rapid dissociation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex -rapid dissiciation of the inhibitor with the enzyme
Competive inhibition the inhibitor resembles the substrate and binds to the active site of the enzyme.An enzyme can bind substrate forming an ES complex or inhibitor EI.
competive unhibition kinetics increases KM No change on Vmax Can be overcome by increasing substrate concentration Graph is a V with the same Y-intercept
Uncompetive inhibition It is substrate-dependent inhibition in that the inhibitor binds only to the enzyme-substrate complex (ES)
uncompetitive inhibition kinetics lowers Vmax Lovers KM Parallel graph, different x and Y intercept
Noncompetitive inhibition The inhibitor and the substrate can bind simultaneously to an enzyme molecule at different binding sites. Decreases the overall number of active enzymes
Noncompetitive inhibition kinetics Lowers apparent Vmax KM is unchanged the graph is a V with the same x-intercept and different y-intercept
Irreversible inhibitor characteristics It dissociates very slowly from its target enzyme because it has become tightly bound to the enzyme, either covalently or noncovalently
Group-specific reagents Modify specific R groups of amino acids Ex: Nerve gas DIPF react with serine residues
Affinity labels, also called substrate analogs They are structurally similar to the substrate, inhibit enzymes by covalently modifying active sites residues Ex: TPCK reacts with His 57 in chymotrypsin
Suicide Inhibitors, or mechanism-based inhibitors They chemically modify the substrates. The enzyme starts the reaction but the inhibitor forms a reactive intermediate that inactivates the enzyme covalently modifying it. Ex: Penicillin
Transition-state analogs
Created by: daysivp