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Earth Science

Earthquakes - PAPA G class

TermDefinition
Eurasian Melanesian belt Runs from the Pacific islands throughout Asia and southern Europe and into northwestern Africa.
Earthquake depth can occur anywhere between the Earth's surface and about 700 kilometers below the surface.
Tectonic Plates These are huge layers that make up the earth’s upper layers. They continually stretch, move, slide, and collide against each other.
Faults These are weak lines that can develop in the plates, usually on the surface of the earth. There are different types and the major types include dip-slip normal, dip-slip reverse, strike-slip and oblique-slip.
Seismograph Is a device that scientists use to measure the magnitude of an earthquake.
The Richter Scale (RS) Is a scale or measure that is used to compare earthquakes. It is calculated in levels of ten.
Ring of Fire This is the coastal belt of the Pacific Ocean which is the home of many volcanic eruptions, plate movement and major fault lines.
Convergent boundary One plate is forced over another plate during movement creating a thrust fault.
Divergent boundary Plates are forced apart each other, usually forming a Rift Zone. This kind is common in ocean floors where new floors are created. An example is the Mid Atlantic Ridge.
Transform fault The plates here slip by each other. This is also called Strike Slip.
P-Waves (Primary Waves) Are longitudinal in nature. The vibrations are along the same direction as the direction of travel. It is also known as compressional waves. This wave travel faster.
S-Waves (Secondary waves) is a wave motion in a solid medium where the medium moves perpendicular to the direction of the travel of the wave.
Focus The location where the earthquake begins. The ground ruptures at this spot, then seismic waves radiate outward in all directions.
Epicenter The point on the Earth's surface located directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Aftershocks A smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake.
Elastic rebound theory Is an explanation for how energy is released during an earthquake.
New Madrid Fault Is a major seismic zone and a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes in the southern and midwestern United States, stretching to the southwest from New Madrid, Missouri.
Seismograph An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
Surface waves A seismic wave that travels across the surface of the Earth as opposed to through it.
locating an earthquake The difference in arrival time between the two types of seismic wave can be used to calculate the distance of the epicenter from the seismometer.
Magnitude Is a number that characterizes the relative size of an earthquake.
Moment magnitude scale is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes.
Mercalli scale Is a seismic intensity scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake.
Microquakes Is a very low intensity earthquake which is 2.0 or less in magnitude. They are very rarely felt beyond 8 km (5 mi) from their epicenter.
Created by: Ruben6543