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Ch 38

Drugs for Neoplasia

Cancer. Uncontrolled cell division.
Define metastasis. Cancer travels to other parts of the body
Define tumors. Swollen, abnormal enlargement, or a mass. Some can be benign or malignant.
Factors that cause cancer are ____ Carcinogens.
Other factors that may lead to cancer include: Over exposure to XR, UV rays from the sun, and genetics
About ___ of cancers are associated with viruses including: 15%, Herpes 1 &2 , HPV, etc
What are the goals of cancer chemotherapy: Cure, control and Palliaton
What is chemotherapy? Drugs transported through the blood in order to reach cancer cells in any location.
3 goals of chemotherapy: (Goals are depended on the progression and stage of the cancer)1. Cure- permanent removal of ALL cancer cells from body. 2. Control- prevent more growth. 3. Palliation- ease severity of the pain, improving the quality of life
What is adjuvant chemotherapy? administration of neoplastic drugs after surgery or radiation, in order to rid the body of any cancer cells that were not able to be removed or prevent cancer from reoccurring (chemoprophylaxis) Ex: tamoxifen administered after breast cancer removal
Define growth fraction: Measure of the number of cell going through mitosis (cell division). Also refers to the ratio of replicating cells and resting cells
Antineoplastic drugs: May only kill a portion of the tumor (chemotherapy protocols & strategies)
Tumors may become _____ Refractory (chemotherapy protocols & strategies)
_______ allows lower dosages of each drug which in turn reduces toxicity . Combination chemotherapy (chemotherapy protocols & strategies)
Drugs given in a ____ dose that way cells have time to ______. Single, recover (chemotherapy protocols & strategies)
Toxicity of Antineoplastic Drugs, Adverse effects include; Hair loss ( alopecia), Inflammation of the epithelial lining of the GI tract (mucositis) Nausea & vomiting
Toxicity of Antineoplastic Drugs, Adverse effects include;(continued..) Anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia due to stem cells in bone marrow being damaged (bone marrow transplants, platelet infusions, epoetin alfa can help with these adverse effects)
Toxicity of Antineoplastic Drugs, Adverse effects include;(continued...) Neutropenia (normally few neutrophils in the blood, leading to increased susceptibility to infection
A patient is usually diagnosed with neutropenia when the neutrophil count is less than____ 1.500 cells/mL
Define Alkylating agents Changes shape of DNA and have the effect of inducing cell death
Adverse effects of Alkylating agents? Bone marrow suppression, lining of GI tract is damaged, Nausea, vomitting and diarrhea, alopecia, fluid retention, rash and headache
What drug is an Alkylating agent? cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
What is an antimetabolite? Nutrients that construct cellular proteins and nucleic acids.
Name 3 classes of Antimetabolites. Folic acid analogs: vitamin b9, essential for growth an maintenance of cells. Purine Analogs: biosynthesis of DNA & RNA Pyrimidine analogs: biosynthesis of DNA & RNA
Drugs in the class of Antimetabolites include: methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
What are adverse side effects of antimetabolites? Nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, anorexia,rash headache and alopecia
______ may occur within minutes of admisnitration or may be delayed for months/years after therapy is completed. Cardiotoxicity
What are natural product (alkaloids): Have the ability to affect cell division, "mitotic inhibitors"
Define vinca alkaloids. Derived from a plant, mostly used for pediatrci leukemia, lymphomas and solid tumors
Name drug class for vinca alkaloids. vincristine (oncovin)
What are the adverse effects of vinca alkaloids. Nausea, vomiting, stomatitis,anorexia, rash headache and alopecia
Define Taxanes. Mitotic inhibitors isolated from the bark of evergreen trees, usually used for metastatic ovarian cancer and breast cancer.
Drugs used in the Taxanes class include: cabazitaxel (Jevtana) clitaxel (Taxol)
Define Topoisomerase inhibitors. Inhibits an enzyme essential to DNA repair, usually used for lymphoblastic leukemia in children, and small cell lung cancer, as well as metastatic colorectal cancer.
Drugs used in the Topoisomerase inhibitors class include: etoposide(VePesid), eniposide (Vumon)
Hormones & Hormones antagonists: Act by blocking substances that cause tumor growth
Define corticosteroids .(Hormones & Hormones antagonists) Suppress cell division, usually used for lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease and leukemia's
Name drug class for corticosteroid. methasone (Decadron)
Define gonadal hormones. Used to treat tumor cells that posses specific hormone receptors, usually used for prostate cancer
Name drug class for gonadal hormone. fluoxymestrone (Halostein)
Define estrogen antagonist. Used to treat ER positive tumors (estrogen receptors)
Name drug class for estrogen antagonist. tamoxifen
What are adverse die effects of estrogen antagonist. Nausea Vomiting Hot flashes Fluid retention Vaginal discharge
Define androgen antagonist. Prevent testosterone from reaching receptors on cancer cells
Name drug class for androgen antagonist. bicalutamide (Casodex)
BRM's ______ Enhance the ability of body defenses to remove tumor cells.
Only ____ is approved for chemotherapy which is _____ 1, interleukin 2
Define targeted therapy. A drug that has been specifically made to attack cancer antigens
Created by: alyxinwndrland