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Skeletat sys. Review

All the necessary and important terms needed to know accouding to the review.

TermDefinition
Number of Phalanges in Upper & Lower Extremities Each extremity has 14 phalanges, with every finger/toe having 3 bones, excluding the thumbs and big toe, which only have 2. There are 56 phalanges total
Diaphysis The shaft or central part of a long bone
Bone Marrow The material in bones that produces red blood cells, platelets and some white blood cells. Red Marrow: Produces red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. Yellow marrow: White blood cells and storage area for fat cells or soft tissue in diaphysis.
Fontanels Spaces/Soft spots that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs, typically in a fetus when ossification is not done and sutures not fully formed. Made of membrane/cartilage that turn into bone by around 18 months. Main: par/frontal
Sutures Areas where the cranial bone have joined together; stitch or row of stitches between two bones like in the skull
Where floating ribs connect on the posterior side Connects to the vertebrae, rather than3: sternum
Joints Areas where two or more bones join together 3 types of joints: Diarthrosis/synoval, Amphiathrosis, Synathrosis
Number of ribs and names First 7: True ribs Next: False Ribs Last 2: Floating ribs Total: 24
Vertebrae- Location and name First 7: Cervical- Back of neck Next 12: Thoracic - Behind ribcage, heart, etc. Next 5: Lumbar- Lower Back Sacrum: (1-5 fused)- Bottom of spine Coccyx: (1-4 fused)- Aka tailbone, bottom of spine Total: 26 bones
Invertebral disks Act as shock absorbers between each vertebrae in the spinal column by keeping the vertebrae separated in case of impact during activity. Protects nerves that run down spine
Bursitis An inflammation of the bursae, which are small fluid-filled sacs surrounding the joints, to decrease friction. It frequently affects joints that perform frequent repetitive motions like the shoulder, elbows, hips or knees.
Comminuted and compound/open fractures Comminuted: A break or splinter of the bone in two or more fragments. Compound: An injury in which a broken bone pierces the skin, causing risk of infection
Scoliosis A side to side, or lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Aka the hunchback, and is a rounded bowing of the back of the thoracic area
Axial Skeleton Bones Includes: Skull (28 bones, with auditory ossicles), Hyoid Bone (1), Vertebral column (26), Thoracic cage- ribs and sternum (25) 80 total bones
Appendicular skeleton Bones Includes:Pectoral girdle (2 scapulas, 2 clavicles), Upper limbs (1 arm, 2 forearm, 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 3 phalanges per finger, 2 in thumb), Pelvic girdle (2 coxae), Lower limbs ( 1 thigh, 2 leg, 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsal, 3 phalanges, 2 in thumb) =128
5 Functions of the skeletal system 1.Framework: Supports the body- holds skin, fat and muscles 2.Protection: Protects vital organs 3.Levers: Provides movement- muscles attach to bones 4.Production of blood cells 5. Storage: Stores calcium, phosphorus and fats
Number of adult bones 206
Tendons Bands of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones
Ligaments Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
The shaft of long bones is called Diaphysis
Rickets Disease affecting bone development that creates a softening and weakening of bones in children, typically because of lack of Vitamin D
Podiatrist Foot, leg and ankle surgeon who studies and treats illnesses and injuries to the lower extremities
Foramina Openings in bones that allows nerves and blood vessels to enter/leave the bone
Bones that form the elbow Humerus, Ulna, Radius
Synathrosis A type of joint that allows little to no movement under normal conditions. Most of these joints are fibrous. Ex: Upper part of the skull
Dislocation When a bone is forcibly displaced from a joint. Frequently occurs in shoulders,fingers, hips, knees, etc. Treated with puttimg back into place or cast
Sprain Injury to a joint accompanied by the stretching or tearing if ligaments
Strain Injury caused by excessive stretching or misuse of a muscle
Cervical vertebrae First: Atlas Second: Axis
Os coxae Bones Includes: Illium, ischium, and pubis
Osteoporosis Disorder of Increased porosity or softening of the bone caused by a hormone deficiency, prolonged lack of calcium in diet and a sedentary lifestyle
Herniated or ruptured disc Occurs when an invertebral disk ruptures or protrudes out of place, causing pressure on the spinal nerve
Long bones Connected with large movement, are long cylindrical with growth heads (epiphyses), which is covered by articular cartilage at either end. Outer layer- Hard, called compact bone Inside- Spongy, called cancellous bone Ex: Femur, Humerus, phalanges
Short bones Almost cube shaped, associated with smaller, more complex movements. Ex: Carpals and Tarsals
Flat bones Protect internal organs Ex: Shull, ribs, scapula, sternum. pelvic girdle
Irregular bones Irregular in shape Ex: Vertebrae, some facial bones
Sesamoid bones Small bones held within tendons, cartilage separated (acts as shock absorber) Ex: Patella
Created by: rockylover1111
 

 



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