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Bio112 - Exam 2

TermDefinition
What kind of organisms are the closest relatives/ancestors of green plants? Green Algea
What changes had to occur in early plants for them to become adapted to living on land? They had to develop roots, stems, vascular tissue, cuticles, stomata, and seeds.
Name the kingdom that plants are classified under. Plantae
Three general characteristics of plants. Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Autotrophic
Three characteristics that separate plant types. Vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers/fruits
Define alternation of generations Land plants alternate in generations between haploid and diploid individuals.
How are conifer eggs fertilized? A pollen grain delivers a sperm nucleus to the egg cell via a pollen tube.
Why are male and female cones separated on conifers? To avoid self pollination.
Why are flowering plants colorful and scented, and why are fruits often tasty? It encourages animals and insects to help pollinate the plant and spread its seeds.
What are Bryophyta? Mosses
What are Pterophyta? Ferns
What are Coniferophyta? Conifers
What are Anthophyta? Flowering plants
What are Angiosperms? 3 Flowering plants-Anthophyta-Magnoliophyta
What are Gymnosperms? 3 Conifers-Coniferophyta-Pinophyta
What are Seedless Vascular Plants? 2 Ferns-Pterophyta
What are Plasmodesmata? Structures that allow communication between plant cells. The cell wall in this area is absent/sparse and the plasma membrane can form a tube through which substances can pass.
What is the function of Chromoplasts? Storing colorful pigments such as in flower petals and fruits.
What are the types of Ground Tissue cells? Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Schlerenchyma
What is Parenchyma? Abundant cells in the plant body. Alive at maturity, have thin primary cell walls, and retain the ability to divide. These cells do photosynthesis, respiration, gas exchange, secretion, wound repair, and storage.
What is Collenchyma? Elongated living cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that can stretch as the cells grow. Alive at maturity. They provide elastic support without interfering with the growth of young stems or expanding leaves. Example = strings in Celery.
What is Schlerenchyma? Inelastic support to parts of a plant that are no longer growing. Dead at maturity, have thick rigid secondary cell walls that take up most of a cell’s volume. These cells contain lignin
What are the two types of Schlerenchyma? Fibers and Schlereids
What are Schlerenchyma Fibers? Elongated cells that usually occur in strands. Used in cloth and rope production such as linen from flax plants and sisal from Agave plants.
What are Schlereids? A type of Schlerenchyma that have many shapes, but are generally shorter than fibers. These cells create the gritty texture of a pear, they also form hard layers in nutshells, apple cores, and cherry pits.
What are the three main types of plant tissue? Ground tissue, Vascular tissue, and Dermal tissue
Where is Ground Tissue found and what is it made of? It fills the spaces between more specialized cell types inside roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds. Composed mainly of parenchyma cells and are important sites of photosynthesis. Examples = pulp of an apple and photosynthetic areas inside leaves.
What are the two types of Vascular Tissue? Xylem and Phloem
Describe Xylem It transports water, dissolved minerals, and hormones from the roots to all other plant parts. Cells are elongated and have thick, lignin-rich secondary walls. Dead at maturity.
Describe Phloem. It transports dissolved organic compounds, mostly sugars. Phloem sap also contains proteins, RNA, hormones, ions, and sometimes viruses.
What are the two types of Xylem? Tracheids and Vessel Elements
What are Tracheids? A type of Xylem that are long, narrow cells that overlap at their tapered ends. Water moves slowly through these cells by moving through pits = thin areas in the cell wall. Found in all plants
What are Vessel Elements? A type of Xylem that are found only in angiosperms. These are short, wide, barrel-shaped conducting cells that stack end to end and form tubes. Side walls have pits, but end walls are either perforated or absent. Water moves more quickly in these.
What are two things that make up Phloem? Sieve plates and companion cells
What are three general characteristics of fungi? They are all Eukaryotic, Heterotrophic,and have cell walls made of chitin.
Where is Dermal tissue found and what is it's function? Is found covering the plant. Secretes a cuticle to protect the plant and prevent water loss.
What are the two types of meristems and where would you find them? Apical: Found in roots, also axillary and terminal buds. Lateral: Found in cork and vascular cambium in wood.
What are tree rings made of? Vascular tissue
What is the difference between early and late season wood? Earlywood is lighter ,larger, thin walled, and less dense because it grows in moist conditions. Latewood is darker, denser,smaller, and thicker because it grows in dry conditions.
What is happening when a plant wilts? There isn't enough water and an air bubble has formed in the xylem. This means that the turgor pressure produced by the flow of the water has stopped and the plant is struggling to hold itself up.
Explain the mechanism of water movement in plants. Xylem brings water up to the leaves where much of it evaporates in transpiration. This is possible because the water is cohesive to itself and is pulled upward with adhesion as water evaporates away. Similar to a train pulling along cars.
What are two macronutrients found in the soil and what they are used for. Nitrogen: Part of DNA, amino acids, coenzymes, chlorophyll, and ATP. Sulfur: Part of amino acids and coenzyme A.
Name two micronutrients and what they are used for. Chlorine: Water balance Zinc: Hormone production, activates enzymes, stabilized ribosomes
What are the major components of soil? Litter Humus B Horizon C Horizon Bedrock
Explain the pressure flow mechanism. Companion cells load sugar into the Phloem by active transport. Water from the Xylem flows into the Phloem by osmosis and pushes the sugar from sources to sinks. When the sugar reaches the sinks it is unloaded from the sieve tubes into the sink cells.
What are the two types of flowering plants? Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
What is unique about Monocots? They have parallel veins, fibrous roots, and distributed vascular bundles in their stems.
What is unique about Dicots? They have netted veins, taproots, and vascular bundles distributed as a ring in their stems.
Explain the process of double fertilization. After landing on the stigma the pollen grain grows a tube down to the ovary. Two sperm nuclei travel down it. One nuclei fertilizes the egg, the other fertilizes the polar bodies making a triploid endosperm.
What is the role of the endosperm/cotyledon? To provide food and nutrients for the growing plant before it's able to form leaves and begin photosynthesis.
What are the three types of fruit? Simple, aggregate and multiple.
What is a simple fruit? One ovary=One fruit Example: Peach
What is an aggregate fruit? Single flower with many ovaries, makes many fruitlets. Example: Raspberry
What is a multiple fruit? Ovaries of separate flowers fuse to make one fruit. Example: Pineapple
What are three ways a plant can reproduce asexually? With micropropagation, root cuttings, and grafting.
Why are fungi often referred to as saprotrophic? They usually degrade dead organic material and absorb the nutrients from it as sustenance.
Why are fungi useful? They decompose dead organic material, can be used to make antibiotics and other medicines, as well as being edible and used to make things like bread and beer.
What are the two types of mycorrhizae? Ectomycorrhizae and Endomycorrhizae
Describe Ectomycorrhizae. Found on the outside of the root, associated with trees living at the tree line (really cold place.
Describe Endomycorrhizae. Found on the inside of the root (half in half out), are found in 90% of vascular plants, without them plant growth can be negatively affected.
What are the three different types of lichen. Crustose, Foliose, and fruticose.
Created by: Sky D