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HA Module 2

Thorax and Lungs

cough stimulation of afferent vagal endings that helps to clear the airway of extraneous material by producing a sudden, forceful, and noisy expulsion or air from the lungs
crepitus subcutaneous emphysema; beads of ari escape from the lungs and create a crackling sound when palpated
anterior axillary line line vertical line drawn from the origin of the front armpit fold along the anterolateral aspect of the thorax
bronchophony voice sound test in which the pt says the words "ninety-nine" or "one, two, three" to determine if the lung is filled with air, fluid, or a solid
eupnea normal breathing; respirations are 12-20 per minute for the resting adult
mediastinum area between the lungs; also called interpleural space
angle of louis (manubriosternal junction or sternal angle) junction of the manubrium and the sternum
midsternal line vertical line drawn from the midpoint of the sternum
voice sounds technique used to assess wheter the lungs are filled with air, fluid, or a solid
midspinal (or vertebral) line vertical line drawn from midpoint of spinous processes
posterior axillary line vertical line drawn from the rear armpit fold
tactile (or vocal) fremitus palpable vibration of the chest wall that is produced by the spoken word
visceral pleura lining of the external surface of the lungs
alveoli (of the lung) smallest functional units of the resp system; where gas exchange occurs
bronchial (or tubular) breath sound breath sound that is high in pitch and loud in intensity and that is heard best over the trachea; has a blowing/hollow quality; heard longer on expiration than inspiration
apnea lack of respirations for 10 or more seconds
vertebrosternal (or true) ribs rib pairs 1-7; articulate via the costal cartilage to the sternum
suprasternal notch visible and palpable depression in the midsternal line that lies superior to the manubrium
bradypnea resp rate under 12 bpm in a resting adult
costal angle angle formed by the intersection of the costal margins at the sternum
vocal fremitus see tactile fremitus
pectus carinatum abnormal thoracic configuration in which ther is a marked protrusion of the sternum; known as pigeon chest
rhonchal fremitus coarse palpable vibration produced by the passage of air through thick exudate in large bronchi or the trachea
pleura serous sac that encases the lung
pleural friction fremitus palpable grating that feels more pronounced on inspiration when there is an inflammatory process between the visceral and parietal pleuras
intercostal space area between ribs
diaphragmatic excursion technique used to assess the pt's depth of ventilation
scapular line vertical line drawn from the inferior angle of the shoulder blade
sternal angle see angle of louis
kussmaul's respirations extreme increased rate and depth of respirations, as in diabetic ketoacidosis
xiphoid process cartilaginous protrusion at the base of the sternum; does not articulate with the ribs
fine crackle discontinuous adventitious breath sound that is caused by air passing through moisture in small airways that suddenly reinflate; resembles a high-pitched crackling sound
adventitious breath sounds breath sound that is superimposed on normal breath sounds
agonal respirations irregularly irregular respirations that signal impending death
air trapping abnormal respiratory pattern with rapid, shallow respirations and forced expirations; the lungs hav insufficient time to fully exhale and air becomes trapped, leading to overexpansion of the lungs
apex (of the lung) top of the lung
apneustic respirations prolonged gasping on inspiration followed by a very short, inefficient pause that can last 30-60seconds
barrel chest abnormal thoracic configuration in which the ratio of the anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter of the chest is approximately 1:1
base (of the lung) bottom of the lung
Biot's Respirations
Created by: anay26643