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Classification of Matter

Pure substance a uniform substance made up of one type of particle, which can be either an element or a compound.
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down by normal chemical or physical means.
Mixture two or more substances that are combined physically but not chemically
Oxygen Discovered by Swedish chemist Karl Scheele and English chemist Joseph Priestley. The most common element in Earth’s crust.
Allotropes Different forms of the same element in the same physical state of matter. They contain only one type of atom but the way the atoms are arranged is different.
Compound A pure substance made up of two or more elements joined in a defined ratio.
Tin One of the first metals used by humans. It is a silvery white metal that is very malleable.
ternary compound made up of three different elements
binary compound made up of two different elements
Homogeneous mixture A type of mixture that appears uniform throughout. The components are mixed evenly (like apple juice).
Dalton's Law The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures of the gases in the mixture, with each gas acting independently.
Solute The substance that is dissolved in the solution.
Solution a homogeneous mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are dissolved in another substance (solvent).
soluble A substance that dissolves in another substance.
solvent The substance that the solute is dissolved in.
Heterogeneous mixture A type of mixture in which the components are not mixed evenly or uniformly distributed throughout.
nonpolar A substance that does not dissolve
Physical property a property of matter that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance
coalescence The process in which small droplets recombine to form bigger ones.
solids have a definite volume and a definite shape, the particles are locked into place
chemical property determined by the ability of a substance to react with or change into another substance (such as toxicity, flammability or reactivity)
Amorphous solids made up of atoms or molecules that are locked into place. The atoms or molecules do not organize into a specific form.
Crystalline solids made up of atoms or molecules that are organized in specific repeating patterns. These regular, repeating patterns form crystals.
Viscosity a property of liquids that describes the “thickness” of the material
Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape
Gases Have no definite volume and no definite shape.
Surface tension A property of liquids that describes the attraction of liquid molecules at the surface.
Molecular mass the mass of one molecule of a substance
effusion the movement of gas particles through a small hole in a container from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure (a balloon deflating over time)
Plasma ionized gas. Some electrons in plasma atoms are free. This means they are not bound to an atom or a molecule
diffusion the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Melting a change in state from a solid to a liquid
Physical change any change in a substance’s form that does not change its chemical makeup (tearing or cutting a piece of paper)
Freezing a change in state from a liquid to a solid.
Melting point the temperature at which a substance begins to change from a solid to a liquid
Vaporization a change in state from a liquid to a gas. The two main types of vaporization are evaporation and boiling.
Freezing point The temperature at which a liquid begins to form a solid. The substance will remain at that temperature until freezing is complete.
Boiling A vaporization process in which a liquid changes to a gas both below the surface and at the surface of the liquid.
Evaporation a vaporization process that occurs at the surface of a liquid
Condensation a change of state from a gas to a liquid
Boiling point the temperature at which a liquid begins to form a gas.
Sublimation a change of state directly from a solid to a gas (does not pass through a liquid state)
Dew point The temperature at which a gas begins to condense into a liquid.
Chemical change a change that takes place when atoms of a substance are rearranged.
Deposition a change of state directly from a gas to a solid
Law of conservation of energy energy can change from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed
Thermal energy the total energy of the particles in an object that responds to changes in temperature
Kinetic energy energy of motion, the faster an object is moving, the more kinetic energy it has
Mechanical energy It is determined by the motion or position of an object. The sum of its kinetic and potential energy.
Exothermic change a change that gives off energy, releasing energy to its surroundings (any burning reaction)
Potential energy stored energy (a ball at the top of a hill)
Separation process a process that divides a mixture into two or more different parts (using a magnet to separate iron or a screen to separate pebbles)
Endothermic change a change that takes energy from its surroundings (the formation of nitrous oxide)
filtrate The collected liquid
filtration a way of separating a mixture based on differences in size between the particles that make up different parts of the mixture (filter paper)
Precipitate the solid that forms from the solution
precipitation a means of separating a component in a solution by reacting it with another substance to form a solid
Created by: rvotaw