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Local Anesthetics

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Who do local anesthetics suppress pain? By blocking sodium channels and impulse conduction on the neuron
How are local anesthetics classified? As either esters or amides
What drugs are often used as adjuncts to local anesthetics? Vasoconstrictors (i.e., epinephrine)
Does epinephrine prolong the effect of local anesthetics? Yes
What are S/S of vasoconstrictor toxicity? Palpitations, tachycardia, nervousness, and hypertension
What are the 3 common local anesthetics? Lidocaine, procaine, and cocaine
When is cocaine most often used? In nasal surgeries
What are some adverse effects of local anesthetics? Excitation of CNS, bradycardia, cardiac arrest and hypotension
Is procaine still used often? No
What is the most widely used local anesthetic? Lidocaine
What is another use for lidocaine other than anesthesia? Cardiac dysrhythmias (often as an IV push)
What is the injection of a local anesthetic into or near nerves that supply the surgical field but at a site distant from the field itself? Nerve block
What should you assess while a patient is under the effects of a nerve block? Their hands, feet, arms, and lower legs for peripheral pulses, temperature of skin.
What is essential in determining when giving a nerve block? That the numbness goes down, not up.
What is a common adverse effect of spinal anesthesia? Headache
When should you call the doctor regarding a headache from spinal anesthesia? If it worsens when the patient gets up
Created by: shrewsburysd