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Module 2

DNA, Protein Synthesis, Enzymes

Deoxyribose Sugar fond in DNA sugar-phosphate backbone
Ribose Sugar found in RNA sugar-phosphate backbone
Nitrogenous Base The rungs of the "DNA ladder" structure attached to the sugar backbone Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil
Phosphate Combines with deoyribose and ribose to from sugar-phosphate backbone in DNA and RNA respectively
DNA AKA Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a double helix structure that stores genetic material, for replication and protein synthesis
RNA AKA Ribonucleic Acid is a single strand structure
Adenine A base that bonds with Thymine
Guanine A base that bonds with Cytosine
Cytosine A base that bonds with Guanine
Thymine DNA base that bonds with Adenine
Uracil RNA base that bonds with Adenine
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Made of phosphate and deoxyribose
DNA and RNA is made up of? Polynucleotides
DNA polynucleotides are made up of? Three parts phosphate, deoxyribose, and a base that contains nitrogen
Purines Double ring structure
Pyrminidine Single ring structure
RNA polynucleotides are made up of? Ribose sugar
mRNA Carries the DNA message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm AKA messenger RNA
rRNA A component of ribosomes AKA ribosomal RNA
tRNA Delivers individual amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis AKA transfer RNA
Replication Process of copying DNA into 2 identical DNA strands
Semi-Conservative Replication Each original strand of un zipped DNA provides a template for the formation of a complementary new strand
DNA Polymerase Join free floating nucleotides to form a new strand of DNA in semi-conservative replication
DNA Helicase Enzyme that breaks down hydrogen bonds and is responsible for un zipping DNA
Mutation Change of bases on DNA during replication
Haploid Half cell
Mitosis Parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells
Meosis Parent cell divides into four haploid cells
Cytokinesis Division of cytoplasm and organelles
Kariokinesis Division of nucleus
Genetic Engineering changing an organism's DNA to serve medical or industrial purposes
Recombinant DNA a mixture of DNA from two or more different organisms; segments of DNA from one organism are inserted into the chromosomes of another host organism
Vector a piece of a host organism's DNA to which another organism's DNA can be added
Plasmid rings of bacterial DNA to which foreign DNA is added
Codon A series of three mRNA nucleotides that code to form a specific amino acid eg A-A-G codes for lysine
DNA Sequence (genetic code) Refers to the sequence of 4 nitrogenous base in a DNA double helix
Initiation First step of translation phase
Messenger RNA Carries a comy of DNA instructions to a ribosome
Promoter A specific area in the DNA where the enzyme RNA polymerase begins unzipping the DNA
RNA Polymerase The enzyme responsible for unzipping DNA
Termination End of translation of a polypeptide
Transcription The process by which DNA forms the template for RNA
Anticodon 3 nucleotide code on mRNA strand that codes to make an amino acid there are 64 codes to make 22 different amino acids
Elongation Stage of translation with transferRNA deliver amino acids to messengerRNA and form polypeptides
Polypeptide Chain of amino acids joined together with peptide bonds
Polyribosome AKA Polysome, a group of ribosomes translating the same strand of mRNA at different places during translation
Start/Stop Codons Series of three mRNA that codes for a start or stop of transcription
Translation Process in which the sequence of codons in mRNA dictate the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
Created by: Raquel Wicks