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Chapter 8

DNA and Proteins

bacteriophage virus that affects bacteria
nucleotide monomer that forms a DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
double helix model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
base pairing rules rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C)
replication process by which DNA is copied
DNA polymerase enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication
central dogma theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
transcription process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
RNA polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template
messenger RNA form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
ribosomal RNA RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock
transfer RNA form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
translation process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
codon sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
stop codon codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
start codon codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
anticodon set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA during translation
promoter section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA
operon section of DNA that contains all of the code to begin transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein; includes a promoter, regulatory gene, and structural gene
exon sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis
intron segment of a gene that does not code for an amino acid
mutation change in the DNA sequence
point mutation mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide
frameshift mutation mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
mutagen agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms
Created by: harolds21