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Chapter 5 TEST

Seed plants

what kind of seeds do gymnosperms produce? Naked Seeds (no Fruit)
Why are gymnosperms referred to as having “naked seeds”? Because they are not enclosed by a protective fruit
What other characteristics are common in most gymnosperms? Needle like or scale like leaves Deep growing root systems
List the 4 types of gymnosperms. Cycads Conifers Ginkgoes Gnetophytes
what is an Ovule? A structure that contains an egg cell
How does gymnosperm pollination occur? Wind carries the pollen from the male cone to the female cone. The pollen collects in a sticky substance produced by each ovule.
How does gymnosperm fertilization occur? Once pollination occurs the ovule closes and seals in the pollen. The scales also close and a sperm cell fertilizes an egg inside each ovule. The fertilized egg develops into the embryo part of the seed
What process occurs on the female cone before fertilization? First an egg cell forms inside an ovule on a scale of a female cone. Next, pollination takes place on the scales. After pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone, an egg and sperm cell join in an ovule on the female cone
Once the embryo develops, what else must happen for a seed to be ready to disperse? Must mature seed coat and stored food forms
Name 2 products made from the sap of conifers? turpentine and rosin
what is Tropism A plant’s growth response, forward or away from a stimulus
what are three important stimuli to which plants show growth response? touch light and gravity
what are three important stimuli to which plants show growth response? thigmotropism
What kind of gravitropism do a plant’s roots show if they grow downward? positive
what is a Hormone? Is a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops
What is one role that the plant hormone auxin plays? Speeds up the rate at which plant cells grow
what determines the time of flowering in many plants? the amt. of darkness the plant recieves
what is Photoperiodism? A plant’s response to seasonal changes in length of night and day
When does a short day plant flower? When nights are longer than it is critical night length (Winter and Fall)
When does a long day plant flower? When nights are shorter than it is critical night length (Summer and Spring)
What are plants that bloom no matter what the periods of darkness called? Day-neutral plants
what is Dormancy? a Period when an organism's growth or activity stops. Helps plant survive freezing temps. and lack of liquid water
what are the three things angiosperms are classified as and why Angiosperms are classified as annuals, biennials, or perennials based on the length of their life cycles.
Annuals Flowering plants that live for 1 year
Biennials? Flowering plants that live for 2 years
Perennials? Flowering plants that live for more than 2 years
how many people live on earth today? more than 7 billion
How many people could live on Earth by the year 2050? 10 billion
How old will you be in 2050? 45/46
what is Precision farming? A farming method in which rmers fine-tune the amount. of water and fertilizer they use to the requirements of a specific field
What variables can be manipulated in precision farming? Fertilizer and water
What are the benefits of precision farming? More food per plant, more plants per field, increased harvest
How can precision farming help the environment? It can minimise the amount. of fertilizer and water used. Decrease fertilizer leads to less runoff into streams lakes and rivers
what is Hydroponics? A farming method in which plants are grown in solutions of nutrients instead of soil
What is the benefit in hydroponics? It allows crops to grow in areas with poor soil
What is genetic engineering? When scientists alter an organism's g.m. to produce an organism with qualities that people find useful
What is the benefit of plants that produce a natural insecticide? They do not have to be sprayed synthetic pesticides
What two characteristics do all angiosperms share? They produce seeds enclosed in fruit They produce flowers
Where can angiosperms live? Almost anywhere on earth
What is the function of flowers? Reproductive structure
What kinds of structures do you expect to find in a flower? Male and female reproductive structures
What structures make up the male parts of a flower? Stamen- anther and filament
The female parts? Pistil- stigma, Style, & Ovary
What purpose do the color and shape of the petals serve? To help ensure pollination
What are the male and female reproductive parts of a flower? Stamen and pistil
What flower parts develop into fruit? The ovary and other structures
What reproductive structures are unique to angiosperms? Fruit and flowers
After a plant has produced a mature flower, what is the first step in reproduction? The pollen grains are trapped on the stigma
What is the process when pollen grains are trapped on the stigma? Pollenation
What happens to the ovary as the seed develops? The ovary changes into a fruit
What is the purpose of the stigma? To trap the pollen
What happens to the ovule parts that are not the embryo? They develop into the seed coat and stored food
What is the purpose of fruit? It helps in seed dispersal
How can you classify angiosperms by the number of cotyledons? One seed leaf- monocot 2 seed leaves- dicot
How are the petals of each type different? A monocot has petals in groups of 3, dicots have petals in groups of 4 or 5
How do the petals of monocots and dicots differ in number? A monocot has petals in multiples of 3 a dicot has petals in multiples of 4 or 5
What are two angiosperms from which people produce clothing? Cotton plants and flax plants
What two characteristics are common to all seed plants? They have all vascular tissue and use pollen and seeds to reproduce
In seed plants, the plants you see are _______________. the sporophyte and the gametophyte are microscopic
What is Phloem? Vascular tissue that moves the food
What is Xylem? Vascular tissue that’s moving water and minerals
what is Pollen? Tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells
what is a Seed? A structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering
what is inside a seed? a partially developed plant
Why does the seed contain stored food? The embryo uses the stored food until it can make its own food
what is an Embryo? The young plant that develops from a zygote
what are Cotyledons? The seed's leaves
What are the three ways listed in your book that seeds can be dispersed? animals, water, wind
Why is it an advantage for seeds to be able to remain inactive and germinate immediately after the embryo forms? This allows them to be dispersed and germinate under ideal growing conditions
What must happen in order for germination to begin? the seed must abosrb water
What three things do roots do for a plant? Anchors down a plant Sometimes stores food Absorbs water and minerals from the soil
Why types of roots are there? And what are 3 examples of each? Fibrous- lawn grass, corn, and onions Taproot- carrot, dandelion, and cacti
What is a root cap? Protects the root from injury from rocks as the roots grow through the soil
What are the 2 main functions for a stem of a plant? The stem carries substances between the plants roots and leaves. The stem also provides support for the plantand holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun
what is the Cambium? A layer of cells which divide to produce new phloem and xylem
What do trees annual rings represent? Annual rings are made of xylem and represent the age of the tree
what do leaves do? Leaves capture the sun’s energy and carry out the food making process of photosynthesis.
What is Stomata? Small openings in the surface layers of the leaf
what is a Cuticle? A waxy waterproof coating that covers a leaf
what is Transpiration? The process by water evaporates from a plant’s leaves
How does water get into a leaf? It is absorbed by the roots and travels up the stem to the leaf through the xylem
Created by: magicPop