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HEALTH CONCEPTS

Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary, and Pancreatic Systems

TermDefinition
BASAL CELL SECRETION TEST GASTRIC ANALYSIS; MEASURES THE AMOUTH OF GASTRIC ACID PRODUCED IN 1 HOUR
CAPUT MEDUSA BLUISH PURPLE SWOLLEN VEIN PATTERN EXTENDING OUT FROM THE NAVEL
BOWEL SOUNDS SOFT CLICKS/GURGLES THAT MAY BE HEARD EVERY 5-15 SECONDS, OCCURRING IRREGULARLY 5-30 TIMES/MIN (NORMAL)
CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN CLASS OF ANTIGENS NORMALLY PRESENT IN FETAL CELLS; CEA LEVEL IS ELEVATED IN MANY CANCERS & IS MEASURED TO GUIDE CANCER TREATMENT
COLONOSCOPY EXAMINATION OF THE UPPER PORTION OF THE RECTUM WITH A COLONOSCOPE
ENDOSCOPY PROCEDURE IN WHICH AN INSTRUMENT IS INTRODUCED INTO THE BODY TO GIVE A VIEW OF ITS INTERNAL PARTS
ESOPHAGOGASTRODUODENOSCOPY (EGD) AN ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE THAT ALLOWS THE PHYSICAL TO VIEW THE ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, & DUODENUM
ESOPHAGOSCOPY EXAMINATION OF THE ESOPHAGUS USING AN ENDOSCOPE
FLUOROSCOPE DEVICE CONSISTING OF A FLUORESCENT SCREEN SUITABLY MOUNTED, EITHER SEPARETELY OR IN CONJUNCTION W/ AN X-RAY TUBE, BY MEANS OF WHICH THE SHADOWS OF OBJECTS INTERPOSED BETWEEN THE TUBE & THE SCREEN ARE MADE VISIBLE
GASTRIC ACID SIMULATION TEST TEST THAT MEASURES THE AMOUNT OF GASTRIC ACID FOR 1 HOUR AFTER SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION OF A DRUG THAT STIMULATES GASTRIC ACID SECRETION
GASTRIC ANALYSIS TEST PERFORMED TO MEASURE SECRETIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID & PEPSIN IN THE STOMACH
GASTROSCOPY EXAMINATION OF THE STOMACH & ABDOMINAL CAVITY BY USE OF A GASTROSCOPE
GASTROSTOMY SURGICAL CREATION OF A GASTRIC FISTULA THROUGH THE ABDOMINAL WALL
GAVAGE FEEDING W/ A STOMACH TUBE OR W/ A TUBE PASSED THROUGH THE NARES, PHARYNX, & ESOPHAGUS INTO THE STOMACH (LIQUID OR SEMI-LIQUID FORM)
ICTERUS YELLOWING OF THE SKIN & THE SCLERA OF THE EYE (SIGN OF LIVER, GALLBLADDER, OR RED BLOOD CELL DISORDERS)
IMPACTION AN IMMOVABLE ACCUMULATION OF FECES IN THE BOWELS
JAUNDICE YELLOWING OF THE SKIN & SCLERA OF THE EYE
LAVAGE WASHING OUT OF A CAVITY
LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL SERIES USE OF BARIUM SULFATE AS AN ENEMA TO FACILITATE X-RAY AND FLUOROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF THE COLON
OCCULT BLOOD CHEMICAL TEST OR MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION FOR BLOOD, ESPECIALLY IN FECES, THAT IS NOT APPARENT ON VISUAL INSPECTION
PERIPHERAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION NUTRITION BY PERIPHERAL IV INJECTION
PERISTALSIS PROGRESSIVE, WAVE-LIKE MOVEMENT THAT OCCURS INVOLUNTARILY IN HOLLOW TUBES OF THE BODY SUCH AS THE ALIMENTARY (DIGESTIVE) CANAL; CAUSES CONTENTS OF TUBE TO BE MOVED ONWARD
PROCTOSIGMOIDOSCOPY VISUAL EXAMINATION OF THE RECTUM; SIGMOID COLON BY USE OF A SIGMOIDOSCOPE
RETROGRADE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY (ERCP) AN ENDOSCOPIC PROCEDURE THAT PERMITS THE PHYSICIAN TO VISUALIZE THE LIVE, GALLBLADDER, & PANCREAS USING AN ENDOSCOPE, DYE, & X-RAY EXAM
SPIDER ANGIOMA THIN REDDISH-PURPLE VEIN LINES CLOSE TO THE SKIN SURFACE
STEATORRHEA FAT IN THE STOOLS; MAY BE ASSOC. W/ PANCREATIC DISEASE
STRIAE LINE OR BAND OF ELEVATED OR DEPRESSED TISSUE; MAY DIFFER IN COLOR OR TEXTURE FROM SURROUNDING TISSUE (EX: STRETCH MARKS)
UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL SERIES (UPPER GI) X-RAY & FLUOROSCOPIC EXAMINATIONS OF THE STOMACH & DUODENUM AFTER THE INGESTION OF A CONTRAST MEDIUM
ACID BREAKS DOWNS FOOD INTO ____________________ CHIME
ORAL CAVITY CONSISTS OF: TEETH - MECHANICAL DIGESTION TONGUE SALIVARY GLANDS (parotid, submandibular, sublingual)
SALIVA ENZYME = AMYLASE = DIGESTS STARCH TO MALTOSE
STOMACH -UPPER LEFT QUADRANT -EXTENDS FROM ESOPHAGUS TO DUODENUM -4 REGIONS (cardia, fundus, body, pylorus) -3 LAYERS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE (outer longitudinal, middle circular, inner oblique) -4 LAYERS OF STOMACH WALL (serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa)
CARBOHYDRATES ARE MOST READILY DIGESTED FOLLOWED BY PROTEINS & FATS
SMALL INTESTINE -APPROX. 20 FT. LONG -IN THE PERITONEAL CAVITY -EXTENDS FROM STOMACH TO THE CECUM (colon) -3 PARTS: 1. DUODENUM 2. JEJUNUM 3. ILEUM -DIGESTION COMPLETION
LARGE INTESTINE -MOST WATER IS ABSORBED -EXTENDS FROM ILEUM TO ANUS -TEMPORARILY STORES & THEN ELIMINATES INDIGESTIBLE MATERIAL
LIVER -RIGHT SIDE & CENTER OF UPPER ABD. CAVITY -RIGHT LOBE LARGER THAN LEFT LOB -RECEIVES OXYGENATED BLOOD BY WAY OF HEPATIC ARTERY -ALL BLOOD LEAVES THROUGH HEPATIC VEIN -PRODUCTION OF BILE
GALLBLADDER -APPROX. 4 FT. .ONG -UNDERSURFACE OF THE LIVER -RECEIVES BILE & GALLBLADDER CONCENTRATES -CHOLECYSTOKININ STIMULATES GALLBLADDER CONTRACTION -FORCES BILE INTO CYSTIC DUCT INTO COMMON DUCT INTO DUODENUM
PANCREAS -APPROX. 6 FT. LONG -ENZYME AMYLASE DIGESTS STARCH TO MALTOSE
AFRICAN AMERICAN OBESITY IS A POSITIVE
APPALACIANS DEFICIENT IN VIT. A, IRON, & CALCIUM
ARABS RIGHT HAND EATERS (CLEAN HAND), LEFT HAND FOR TOILETING, DO NOT DRINK WITH MEAL
MUSLIM PROHIBITED TO DRINK ALCOHOL OR EAT PORK
ASIAN INDIANS RICE EATING DEFICIENCIES, EAT CHILIS IODINE DEFICIENCY IN FOOD & WATER
BRAZILIANS LACTOSE INTOLERANCE
JEWS "KOSHER" FIT FOR EATING ACCORDING TO LAW
MEXICAN AMERICAN "GOD'S WILL", HOT & COLD ILLNESSES
ABSENT BOWEL SOUNDS 3-5 MINUTES
ALT (ALANINE) 5 - 35 UNIT/dL INCREASE W/ INJURY TO LIVER/HEPATITIS
ALBUMIN (PROTEIN) 3.1 - 4.3 G/dL DECREASE WITH LIVER DISEASE
AMYLASE (MONITORS PANCREAS) 53 - 123 UNIT/L INCREASE W/ PANCREATITIS OR GALLSTONES
AMMONIA (BREAKDOWN PROTEIN) 12 -55 MOL/L INCREASE W/ LIVER DAMAGE OR HEPATITIS
AST (ASPARTATE)(LIVER ENZYME) 8 -20 UNIT/L RELEASED IN BLOOD WHEN CELLS DIE INCREASE W/ LIVER FAILURE, HEPATITIS, PANCREATITIS
BILIRUBIN (LIVER FUNCTION) 0.1 -1 MG/dL TOTAL SERUM (CONJUGATED + UNCONJUGATED)
CALCIUM 9 -10.5 MG/dL
CHOLESTEROL 150 - 200 MG/dL IN BLOOD STREAM
LDH (LACTIC) 110 -250 IU/L RELEASED W/ INJURY OR DISEASE
NUCLEAR SCANNING INJECTING RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE; CHOLESCINTIGRAPHY, DISIDA, HIDA, PIPIDA SCANS
LIVER SCAN INJECTING SLIGHTY RADIOACTIVE MEDIUM; SCAN PASSED OVER
ESOPHAGOGASTRODUODENOSCOPY (EGD) ESOPHAGUS
NON-INVASIVE UPPER GI SERIES LOWER GI SERIES
INVASIVE NUCLEAR SCANNING EGD ERCP PROCTOSIGMOIDOSCOPY COLONOSCOPY
NG TEMPORARY/SHORT TERM
ESOPHAGOSTOMY GASTROSTOMY JEJUNOSTOMY LONG TERM
NG PLACEMENT MARKER OR X-RAY
ENTERAL NUTRITION NUTRITION PROVIDED WHEN ORALLY IS NOT
GASTROINTESTINAL DECOMPRESSION WHEN STOMACH/SM. INTESTINE BECOME FILLED W/ AIR/FLUID
PARENTERAL NUTRITION (PN) NUTRITION BY CENTRAL OR PERIPHERAL IV ROUTE TO IMPROVE PTS. NUTRITIONAL STATUS
PERIPHERAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION (PNN) NUTRIENTS VIA IV ROUTE, BUT NO CENTRAL VEIN
Created by: Smccunn