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GEO Test 1

Subfields of Geography? Hydrosphere (bodies of water) and Lithosphere (The ground. I.e.: hills, valleys, mountains)
Where does latitude begin? 0 (N-S) to 90 *Equator*
Where does longitude begin? 0-180 (E-W) *Greenwich, England*
Coordinates of Capricorn 23.5 SOUTH
Coordinates of Cancer 23.5 NORTH
Coordinates of Equator 0 LATITUDE, ANY longitude
Coordinates of Arctic Circle 66.5 NORTH
Coordinates of Antarctic Circle 66.5 SOUTH
Coordinates of Prime Meridian 0- LONGITUDE, ANY Latitude
Coordinates of Mobile Alabama 30.70 North
Maximum Measurement of Latitude? 90 Degrees North or South of Equator
Maximum Measurement of Longitude? 180 Degrees East or West of Prime Meridian
Shape of the Earth? Oblate Spheroid (Bulge at equator, flattened poles)
Four Types of Map Distortions? Area, Shape, Distance, Direction
Three families of projections? Plane (Azimuthal), Cylindrical, Conic
What is Plane Projection best for? POLAR AREA
What is Cylindrical projection best for? WORLD MAP *SAILORS***
What is Conic projection best for? U.S. / Wide East-West Maps
What is the problem with the Mercator projection? Distorts size of objects as latitude increases
What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems (Complex computer program that puts lots of maps together to study data)
What is remote sensing? Drones/ Satellites... Mechanical collection of data from a distance, often aerial
What are isolines? Lines drawn to join equal points
What are contour lines Connect two points of equal elevation
What is the purpose of topographic maps? To contour equal lines of elevation (physical geography) *Has vertical scale to determine a point in a 3 dimensional space*
What is a mineral? Naturally occurring, inorganic substance
What four minerals comprise most of the Earth? silicate, oxygen, iron, magnesium
What are the two most abundant minerals on Earth? Oxygen and silicate
What is a rock? Inorganic substance containing one or more minerals
What are the three rock types? Igneous (NEW ROCK), sedimentary (SEDIMENT), magnesium (CHANGED ROCK)
Extrusive rock? Igneous rock formed above ground. Cools quickly, no visible crystals
Intrusive rock? Below ground, cools slowly, large crystals
What forms sedimentary rock? Sediment deposited by wind, water, ice cemented together into rock
What forms limestone? Mostly skeletal material of marine organisms (shells, coral etc)
What type of rock forms on lake bottoms and ocean floors? Sedimentary
How is metamorphic rock formed? CHANGED ROCK.... Formed by other rocks under intense heat and pressure
Which rock type is easiest to erode? Sedimentary
2 examples of sedimentary rock? Limestone and Sandstone
2 examples of Igneous rock? Basalt and granite
2 examples of metamorphic rock? Quartzite and marble
What rock type is found continentally? Igneous
What rock types are found oceanicly? Sedimentary and Igneous
How have scientists learned about the Earth's interior? Seismic waves (earthquakes)
Three types of seismic waves? PRIMARY, SECONDARY, SURFACE
Describe Primary Waves: Travel fastest, travel through any material
Describe Secondary Waves: Slower waves, travel only through solids
Describe Surface Waves: Slowest waves, CAUSE MOST DAMAGE
Surface Waves can be compared to... waves in the Ocean
Which Seismic waves can travel through liquid? Primary Waves
Earth's layers in order from inner most: Inner Core (solid), Outer Core (Liquid), Mantle (Plastic-like), Crust (solid)
Inner Core material: Solid
Outer core material: Liquid
Mantle material: Plastic Like
Crust Material: Solid
Oceanic VS Continental Crust: Oceanic Crust: THINNER, YOUNGER, HEAVIER Continental Crust: OLDER, THICKER, LIGHTER
How old is Earth, as per radiometric dating? 4.5 Billion years old
Describe the theory of catastrophism? Explains why landforms are shaped the way they are. Blames catastrophes not operating today.
Describe the theory of uniformitarianism? Present is key to the past. Laws govern landscape processes. *What we use today*
Evidence supporting continental drift theory? Shapes/biological/geological matching
What is Pangea? "New Earth" (All continents were once one)
Who is Alfred Wegener? Biogeographer who proposed continental drift theory
What evidence supports sea floor spreading? Used to explain plate motion (lithosphere)
What are the components of the plate tectonics theory? Continental drift + seafloor spreading + new data. Plate process of formation/movement/ deconstruction Answers why volcanoes/earthquakes happen where they do
How are convection and plate tectonics theory connected? Mechanism is convection (transfer of heat/energy)
Longitude Measures What directions? East/West
Latitude Measures what directions? North/South
Circles of illumination? Divides the Earth into two equal halves: one is illuminated by the sun, one is dark
Define Parallels Straight lines that never converge, EQUALLY SPACED
Define meridians Converge at the poles
Science of map making is called Cartography
Definition of Map Generalized view of an area as seen from above and reduced in size
Advantages of globe: True shapes, directions and areas (On map, one or more of these is lost when trying to accurately flatten a sphere)
Lines of longitude are called... Meridians
180 degrees East and West meet at... The international date line
Longitude uses Passage of the day and seconds/minutes
One degree of latitude is equal to about... 69 miles/ 60 minutes Each degree can be broken down to minutes and seconds
Relative location Descriptive
Absolute location Mathematically based
Graticule Pattern of parallel and medians on a globe
New theory for motion (1930s) Thermal connective cells in the upper mantle, like boiling water
Paleomagnetism Reversal of Earths magnetic field
Created by: kspurgeon12



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