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Chapter 7

Body Structure and Function

What is the basic unit of body structure? Cell
Cells need food, water and __________________ to live and function. Oxygen
What is found in the center of each cell and directs the cell's activities? Nucleus
How many chromosomes does each cell contain? 46
What controls the traits that children inherit from their parents? Genes
What is the process of cell division? Mitosis
What do groups of cells with similar functions combine to form? Tissues
This type of tissue stretches and contracts to let the body move. Muscle
When you group tissue with the same functions together what is formed? Organs
Organs that work together to perform special functions are called _______________. Systems
What is the outer layer of the skin called? Epidermis
What gives skin its color? Pigment
Which layer of the skin contains blood vessels, nerves, sweat and oil glands and hair roots? Dermis
What kind of tissue supports the epidermis and the dermis? Subcutaneous
One of the functions of skin is that is prevents _________________ and other substances from entering the body. Microorganisms
The skin helps regulate body __________________. Temperature
Which type of bones bear the body's weight? Long
Which type of bones allow for ease of movement? Short
Which type of bone protect the organs? Flat
What type of bones make up the vertebrae in the spinal column? Irregular
The _________________ is a membrane that covers the bones and contains blood vessels that supply the bones with oxygen and food. Periosteum
Blood cells are formed in the bone ______________. Marrow
What is the point at which two or more bones meet called? Joint
What is the connective tissue at the end of long bones? Cartilage
What are the strong bands of connective tissue that hold bones together at the joint? Ligaments
Which type of joint allows movement in all directions (like your shoulder)? Ball and socket
Which type of joint allows movement in one direction (like your elbow)? Hinge
Which joint allows turning from side to side (like your skull connecting to the spine)? Pivot
Which type of muscles can be consciously controlled (like arm and leg muscles)? Voluntary
Which muscles work automatically (like stomach or intestinal muscles)? Involuntary
What is another name involuntary muscles? Smooth Muscles
The heart muscle is called the __________________ muscle. Cardiac
One function of muscles is the _________________ of body parts. Movement
One function of muscles is the maintenance of _________________. Posture
One function of muscles is the production of body _____________. Heat
What is the name of the connective tissue that connects muscles to bones? Tendons
What is the largest part of the brain called? Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the center of thought and __________________. Intelligence
What part of the brain controls the highest functions of the brain like reasoning, memory, speech, vision and hearing? Cerebral cortex
The midbrain, pons and medulla are located in the ______________. Brainstem
What part of the brain controls heart rate, breathing and swallowing? Medulla
The spinal ______ lies within the spinal column. Cord
What controls the pathways that conduct messages to and from the brain? Spinal cord
What type of fluid cushions the central nervous system by protecting it from shacks that could easily injure brain and spinal cord structures? Cerebrospinal
The ________________ nervous system has 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Peripheral
The ___________________ nervous system controls involuntary muscles and certain functions like heartbeat, blood pressure and intestinal contractions. Autonomic
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are the two parts of the _________________ nervous system. Autonomic
The sympathetic nervous system _______________ up functions. Speeds
The parasympathetic nervous system ________________ functions. Slows
When you are angry, scared, excited or exercising the __________________ nervous system is activated. Sympathetic
When you relax or your sympathetic nervous system is stimulated for too long, the ______________________ nervous system is activated. Parasympathetic
Sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch are the five ________________. Senses
The ____________ has three layers: the sclera, choroid and retina. Eye
The white, outer layer of the eye is called the _________________. Sclera
Blood vessels, ciliary muscles, and the iris make up the ________________. Choroid
What is the name of the opening in the middle of the iris? Pupil
The pupil ________________ (narrows) in bright light. Constricts
The pupil _________________(widens) in dim or dark places. Dilates
The inner area of the eye is called the _________________. Retina
The retina contains the receptors for vision and the nerve fibers of the __________________ nerve. Optic
The functions of this sense organ involve hearing and balance. Ear
The _________________ ear is called the pinna or auricle. External
Sound waves are guided through the external ear into the ____________ canal. Auditory
What is the waxy substance secreted by the glands in the auditory canal? Cerumen
The eardrum or __________________ membrane separates the external and middle ear. Tympanic
The inner ear consists of semicircular canals and the _____________ which looks like a snail shell. Cochlea
The inner ear contains ______________ that carries sound waves from the middle ear to the acoustic nerve. Fluid
The acoustic nerve carries messages to the ______________. Brain
One function of the circulatory system involves blood carrying food, ____________, and other substances to the cells. Oxygen
What structure does blood remove waste products from? Cells
Blood and blood vessels help regulate body __________________. Temperature
The circulatory system produces and carries cells that defend the body from microbes that cause _____________________. Disease
Blood consists of blood cells and which substance that carries food, hormones and chemicals? Plasma
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are red in color because they contain ________________. Hemoglobin
Where are red blood cells formed? Bone marrow
What do white blood cells (leukocytes) protect the body against? Infection
Where are white blood cells formed? Bone marrow
What is needed for blood clotting? Platelets
What is the outer layer of the heart, the thin sac covering the heart, called? Pericardium
What is the second layer of the heart, the thick muscular part, called? Myocardium
What is the inner layer of the heart, the membrane lining the inner surface, called? Endocardium
The _______________ atrium receives blood from body tissues. Right
The ____________ atrium receives blood from the lungs. Left
The upper chambers are called the ___________ and they receive blood. Atria
The lower chambers pump blood and are called the _____________. Ventricles
The ________________ ventricle pumps blood to the lungs for oxygen. Right
The __________________ ventricle pumps blood to all parts of the body. Left
What is the resting phase of heart action called? Diastole
What is the working (pumping) phase of heart action called? Systole
Which type of blood vessel is rich in oxygen and carries blood away from the heart? Arteries
What is the largest artery called? Aorta
What are the very tiny blood vessels that allow for the transfer of food and oxygen to the cells? Caoillaries
What type of blood vessel returns blood to the heart? Veins
Two main ________________ are called the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava. Veins
The inferior vena cava carries blood from the ______________ and trunk. Legs
The superior vena cava carries blood from the ____________ and arms. Head
What is the process of supplying the cells with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from them called? Respiration
Respiration involves breathing in, what is another name for breathing in? Inhalation
Respiration involves breathing out, what is another name for breathing out? Exhalation
Air enters the body through the mouth and ______________. Nose
Air passes from the larynx into the _________________. Trachea
The trachea divides at its lower end and goes into the lungs through the right and left ___________. Bronchus
The bronchus divides into smaller branches called the __________________. Broncioles
The bronchioles subdivide and end up in one-celled air sacs called _______________. Alveoli
The _______________________ provide blood supply to the alveoli. Capillaries
_________________ and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the capillaries and alveoli. Oxygen
What separates the lungs from the abdominal cavity? Diaphragm
What is the two-layered sac covering the lung called? Pleura
A bony framework made up of the ribs, sternum and vertebrae protects the _________________. Lungs
What is the process of breaking down food physically and chemically for use by the body called? Digestion
The digestive system removes solid ____________ from the body. Waste
What is the long tube that extends from the mouth to the to the anus? Alimentary Canal
Where does digestion begin? Mouth
What glands secrete saliva? Salivary
Food is moistened by ________________ to help with swallowing and begin digestion. Saliva
During swallowing, the tongue pushes food into what muscular tube? Pharynx
What are the involuntary muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal called? Peristalisis
The mucous membrane lining the stomach contains glands that secrete what kind of juices to aid in digestion? Gastric
Gastic juices and food combine to make ______________. Chyme
What is the name of the greenish gastric juice made in the liver? Bile
Where is bile stored? Gallbladder
In what part of the small intestines does chyme mix with bile? Duodenum
Most food absorption takes place in the jejunum and ____________ parts of the small intestines. Ileum
Undigested chyme is moved into the large intestine which is also called the _______________. Colon
Where is most of the water from the chyme absorbed? Colon
After the water is absorbed, what is the remaining semi-solid material called? Feces
Peristalsis moves feces through the colon and into the _________. Rectum
Where does feces pass out of the body through? Anus
The urinary system removes waste products from where? Blood
The urinary systems maintains water ______________ within the body. Balance
Where is urine stored until the need to urinate occurs? Bladder
Urine passes from the bladder through the _________________. Urethra
What is the opening at the end of the urethra called? Meatus
What is the male sex gland called? Testes
Where are male sex cells produced? Testes
Which male hormone is produced in the testes? Testosterone
What is the name of the fluid that carries sperm from the male reproductive tract called? Semen
The urethra runs through the __________________ gland. Prostate
What is the name of the outlet for urine and semen in men? Urethra
Where is the urethra located? Penis
What is the name of the female sex glands? Ovaries
In a female, where are the eggs (ova) located? Ovaries
The release of an egg (ovum) is called ___________________. Ovulation
The ovaries secrete the female _____________________ estrogen and progesterone. Hormones
Where does the fetus grow? Uterus
The cervix of the uterus projects into the _________________ which opens to the outside of the body. Vagina
The vagina is part of the _______________ canal. Birth
What is the external female genitalia called? Vulva
The _________ majora and ______________ minora are two folds of tissue on each side of the vaginal opening. (Same word for both) Labia
Menstruation occurs about every ______________ days. Twenty eight
Menstrual flow is _______________ that flows from the uterus through the vaginal opening. Blood
Menstrual flow usually lasts 3 to 7 _______________. Days
The endocrine glands secrete what kind of chemical substance into the bloodstream? Hormones
What is the name of the master gland? Pituitary gland
The anterior pituitary gland secrete which hormone that is needed for growth of muscles, bones, and other organs? Growth
Which hormone is needed for thyroid gland function? Thyroid-stimulating
Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland? Adrenocorticotropic
Which hormone regulates metabolism? Thyroid
The thyroid hormone is secreted by the ________________ gland. Thyroid
Too _______________ thyroid hormone slows body processes, movement and causes weight gain. Little
Too __________thyroid hormone causes increase metabolism and heart rate, excess energy and weight loss. Much
The adrenal gland is located on top of each ________________. Kidney
The adrenal _________________ secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Medulla
The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate the body to quickly produce ________________ during emergencies. Energy
What hormone does the pancreas secrete? Insulin
Insulin regulates the amount of _______________ in the blood available for use by the cells. Sugar
Which body system protects the body from disease and infection? Immune
Immunity means that a person has _________________ against a disease or condition. Protection
What are substances that cause an immune response? Antigens
Which type of white blood cells produce antibodies? Lymphocytes
Created by: na3