Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Rep. Pathology

Reproductive Pathology

QuestionAnswer
Mullerian Duct Anomalies Embryologic fusion anomalies that may result in conditions such as organ agenesis, abnormal septation, organ duplictions, etc. May also be associated with renal abnormalities.
Gartner Duct Cyst Arise in women from remnants of the degenerated mesonephric/wolffian duct. Occur in the cervix and in the anterolateral vaginal wall submucosa. 1 to 2 cm in size.
Imperforate Hymen May not be recognized until puberty with lack of menses. May reveal blood in vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
Hematocolpos Vagina filled with blood.
Hematometra Uterus filled with blood.
Hematosalpinx Fallopian tube filled with blood.
Hypospadias/Epispadias Abnormal development of urethral canal. Ventral opening is hypospadia. Dorsal opening is Epispadias. Often associated with cryptorchidism, bladder exstrophy, etc. May obstruct bladder predisposing to bladder infections.
Phimosis The inability to retract foreskin over glans penis.
What can cause Phimosis? May be due to abnormal development or inflammation of glans and foreskin. Prevents adequate cleaning predisposing to other infections.
Balanoposthitis Inflammation of foreskin
Paraphimosis Inability to replace foreskin after retracting due to inflammation and swelling of glans.
Cryptorchidism Failure of testes to descend into scrotum. Usually unilateral. Early arrest of germ cell production and atrophic changes develop in early childhood. Increased risk for testicular cancer in both abnormal and normal testes.
Senile Atrophic Vulvitis or Vaginitis Skin has reduced vascularity and reduced cornification making it thinner and more prone to infection.
Who is affected by Senile Atrophic Vulvitis and what causes it? Occurs in elderly women from hypoestrinism.
Urethral Caruncle Painful polypoid nodule of granulation tissue.
Where does a Urethral Caruncle Occur? Occurring at the urethral meatus secondary to epithelial atrophy.
How do you treat a Urethral Caruncle Regresses with topical estogen therapy.
Leukoplakia white plaque
What causes Leukoplakia May be due to psoriasis, chronic dermatitis, etc. May also be from non
Lichen Sclerosis Et Atrophicus (Atrophic Dystrophy) Smooth vulvar skin with small papules that coalesce into thin gray parchment like areas that are susceptible to infection.
Where does Lichen Sclerosis Et Atrophicus occur? Perivaginal, Periclitoral, and perianal skin.
Histological features of Lichn Sclerosis Et Atrophicus epithelial atrophy with loss of rete ridges overlying a hypocellular, collagenized upper dermis and a band
What may happen if Lichen Sclerosis Et Atrophicus is not treated? narrowing of the introitus or Kraurosis Vulvae.
Lichen Simplex Chronicus (Hypertrophic Dystrophy) a nonspecific reaction pattern to chronic pruritus.
Histological features of Lichen Simplex Chronicus Hyperkertosis and acanthosis of the epidermis with a variable lymphocytic infiltration of the dermis, increased mitoses of the epidermis but no cytologic atypia.
What is Lichen Simplx Chronicus considered if there is cytologic atypia? Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.
Granular Cell Tumor of Vulva Tumor of Vulva composed of large cells with prominent granular cytoplasm. Most are small and benign. May induce pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying skin that can be confused with squamous cell carcinoma.
Where else can granular cell tumors appear? Vagina, breast, and tongue.
Hidradenoma papilliferum benign tumor derived from apocrine sweat glands which presents as a nodular mass usually on or between the labia.
Histological features of hidradenoma papilliferum complicated papillary architecture with two cell layer epithelium differentiating it from adenocarcinoma.
What makes Hidradenoma papillerferum different from adenocarcinoma? two cell layered epithelium.
Extramammary Paget Disease red, crusted, well demarcated lesion usually on the labia majora. Neoplasia may last for years and spread laterally but usually not vertically. If spread is vertical prognosis is poor.
Who is predisposed to Extramammary Paget Disease? women with a history of chronic pruritus and irritation.
Histological features of Extramammary Paget Disease vacuolated tumor cells present singly and in clusters within the epidermis. Confined to epidermis and skin appendages.
Extramammary Paget Disease cells test positive for what? PAS and mucicarmine.
Condyloma Acuminata Verrucous alterations of squamous epithelium (venereal warts).
What strains of HPV cause Condyloma Acuminata? type 6 and 11
Where is Condyloma Acuminata most frequently found? cutaneous surfaces of the perineal and perianal skin but may also affect vagina, cervix, and other mucosal surfaces.
Histological features of Condyloma Acuminata hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, and koilocytocis of the epidermis.
Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma carcinoma of vulva that are related to HPV infections and develop after a series of progessive changes of the epithelium.
What strains of HPV cause Squamous Cell Carcinoma? type 16 and 18
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) progressive but potentially reversible cytologic atypia of squamous cell epithelial caused by HPV.
Bowen Disease or Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Situ (VIN III) may present as raised red lesions involving the labia but can be percentric involving the periclitoral and perianal skin.
Average age of Bowen Disease around 40
Percentage of patients with Bowen disease that will progress to invasive carcinoma of the vulva 10% to 20% and usually elderly and immunocompromised
Percentage of patients that have concurrent CIS or invasive carcinoma of cervix or vagina with Bowen disease 25%
Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of vulva white plaque like lesions with itching and local discomfort as predominant symptoms. Over time they will become firm and indurated with possible central ulceration. May be multicentric.
Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the Vulva occurs in what population? post menopausal women but is shown increasingly in younger women
At the time of diagnosis, about how many SCC have metastasized? 2/3
Where do SCCs metastasize to? inguinal, femoral, and pelvic lymph nodes and later to viscera
What is the prognosis for SCCs with lesions greater than 2 cm with lymph node metastasis? 25% 5 year survival
What is the prognosis for SCCs with lesions smaller than 2 cm treated with vulvectomy and pelvic lyphadenectomy? 60% to 80% 5 year survival
What is the prognosis for SCCs with no lymph node metastases? 90% 5 year survival
What are the best prognostic factors for SCCs? patiets age and tumor stage and differentiation
Verrucous Carcinoma variant of squamous cell carcinoma with well differentiated cells although the gross appearance is that of a large fungating tumor.
What is the common spread pattern of Verrucous Carcinoma? laterally rather than vertically
What is the most frequently identified malignancy in the vagina? metastatic as opposed to primary malignancies that start in the vagina
Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma rare, well differentiated tumor that arises from the posteror fornix.
What is common in the history of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina? cervical dysplasia and carcinoma
What areas can Vaginal SCC invade by direct extension? cervix and perivaginal structures
What lymph nodes drain the upper 1/3 of the vagina? iliac
What lymph nodes drain the lower 2/3 of the vagina? femoral, inguinal, and pelvic
What symptoms are seen with vaginal SCC? vaginal discharge and spotting
What type of patients is vaginal SCC primarily seen in? older women
Prognosis range of vaginal SCC 20% to 90% 5 year survival
Adenocarcinoma Rare, clear cell carcinomas that arise in the vagina or cervix.
What drug is given to mothers during pregnancy that causes adenocarcinoma of their daughters? Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
What is vaginal adenosis? persistence of fetal histology where there is a delayed transformation of glandular epithelium to squamous epithelium.
Where do adenocarcinomas occur? anterior wall of the proximal vagina
What percentage of DES exposed patients have vaginal adenosis? 30% to 50%
What does vaginal adenosis display as? red cobblestone areas contrasting with pink areas
When does vaginal adenosis disappear? 4th decade
When do adenocarcinomas appear? adolescence to early adulthood
When do non DES associated adenocarcinomas (clear cell carcinomas) appear? later in adult life
Sarcoma Botryoides rare rhabdomyosarcoma that has a polyploid grapelike appearance.
Who do Sarcoma Botryoides affect? young girls
Where do Sarcoma Botryoides invade? locally and may penetrate into peritoneal cavity.
Created by: lawrencejcarter