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Cells chapter 1

Cells Lesson 1

Cell Theory A widely accepted explanation of the relationship
Cells Basic unit of structure and function of all living thing
Microscope An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
cell wall a rigid supporting layer that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
cell membrane a thin flexible barrier that surrounds a cell and controls which substances
nucleus an organelle cells.it also has a variety of proteins, to form chromosomes.
organelle A membrane-bound compartment or structure in a cell that performs a special function
ribosome Create proteins for the cell to live and function
cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
mitochondria An organelle in the cytoplasm, responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy.
endoplasmic reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Golgi apparatus package and send out proteins from the er
vacuole a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
chloroplast an organelle in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and changes it into an energy that the cell needs to live and function
lysosome A cell organelle which contains chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones and that can be used by the rest of the cell.
multicellular made of many cells
unicellular made of a single cell
tissue A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
organ A body structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue that work together.
organ system A group of organs that work together to perform a major function.
element Pure substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by chemical or physical means.
compound substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio or proportion.
protein Large organic molecule that is made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
carbohydrate energy rich compound such as sugar or a starch that is made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
lipid an energy rich compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
enzyme A bio catalyst that lowers the activation in cells
nuclite acid A large organic molecule that is made of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and phosphorus. This contains the instructions the cell needs to carry out all the functions to live and thrive.
deoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material that carries info about the organism and is passed from parent to offspring
double helix Shape of a DNA molecule.
ribonucleic acid to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
selectively permeable cell membrane is one that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.
passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input
diffusion pertains to the spontaneous net movement of particles down their concentration gradient (i.e. difference in the concentrations of substances or molecules between two areas)
osmosis movement of a solvent (such as water) through a semipermeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane.
active transport The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane in the direction opposite that of diffusion, that is, from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.
endocytosis A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
exocytosis 1. the transport of material out of a cell by means of a sac or vesicle that first engulfs the material and then is extruded through an opening in the cell membrane
Created by: arw201198622