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Chapter 1 Vocab Def

Science Definitions

Vocab WordsDefinition
1. Cell Form the parts of an organism and carry out all of its functions
2. Microscope An instrument that makes small objects look larger
3. Cell Theory Number 4 is at the end because I accidentally deleted it. A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
5. Cell Membrane Controls which substances pass into and out of a cell
6. Nucleus A large oval structure that acts as a cell's control center, directing all of the cell's activities
7. Organelles The nucleus is the largest of many tiny cell structures called organelles, that carry out specific functions within a cell
8. Ribosomes Small grain-shaped organelles that produce proteins
9. Cytoplasm Fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus
10. Mitochondria Convert energy stored in food to energy the cell can use to live and function
11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Often called the ER, is an organelle with a network of membranes that produces many substances
12. Golgi Apparatus Receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the ER, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell or to the outside of the cell
13. Vacuole This type of sac, stores water, food, or other materials needed by the cell.
14. Chloroplasts Captures energy from sunlight and changes it to a form of energy cells can use in making food
15. Lysosomes Saclike organelles, which contain substances that break down large food particles into smaller ones
16. Multicelluar Made of many cells
17. Unicelluar Single celled organisms
18. Tissue A group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
19. Organ Such as your brain, made of different kinds of tissues that function together
20. Organ System A group of organs that work together to perform a major function
21. Elements Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
22. Compounds Form when two or more elements combine chemically
23. Carbohydrates Energy-rich organic compounds made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
24. Lipids Compounds that are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen
25. Proteins Large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur
4. Cell Wall A rigid layer that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
26. Enzymes Group of proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things
27. Nucleic Acids Very long organic molecules
28. DNA The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
29. Double Helix The shape of a DNA molecule
30. Selectively Permeable Means some substances can cross the membrane while others cannot
31. Passive Transport The movement of dissolved materials across a cell membrane without using the cell's energy
32. Diffusion Is the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
33. Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
34. Active Transport The movement of materials across a cell membrane using cellular energy
35. Endocytosis A process in which the cell membrane changes shape and engulfs the particle
36. Exocytosis The reverse process of endocytosis, allows large particles to leave the cell
Created by: DaneBAILEY