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Science Vocab-Chap 1

Cells and Heredity-Discovering Cells: Chapter 1 Lesson 1-4 Vocabulary

Cell Form the parts of an organism and carry out all of its functions.
Microscope An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
Cell Theory Is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
Cell Wall Surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
Cell Membrane Controls which substance pass into and out of a cell.
Nucleus Acts as a cell's control center, directing all of the cell's activities.
Organelles Carry out specific functions within a cell.
Ribosomes Small grain-shaped organelles that produce proteins
Cytoplasm Fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Mitochondria Convert energy stored in food to energy the cell can use to live and function.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Has a network of membranes that produce many substances
Golgi Apparatus Receives proteins and other newly formed materials in the ER, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell or to the outside the cell.
Vacuole Stores water, food, or other materials needed by the cell.
Chloroplast Captures energy from sunlight and changes it to a form of energy cells can use in making food.
Lysosomes Contain substances that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
Multicellular Made of many cells.
Unicellular Single-celled organisms.
Tissue A group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.
Organ Made of different kinds of tissue that function together.
Organ system A group of organs that work together to perform a major function.
Elements Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Compounds When two or more elements combine chemically. (Carbon dioxide and water.)
Carbohydrates Energy-rich organic compounds made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids Compounds that are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen and some oxygen.
Proteins Large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur.
Enzymes Speed up chemical reactions in living things.
Nucleic Acids Very long organic molecules.
DNA Genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
Double Helix The shape of a DNA molecule.
Selectively Permeable Some substances can cross the membrane while others cannot.
Passive Transport The movement of dissolved materials across a cell membrane without using the cell's energy.
Diffusion The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.
Active Transport The movement of materials across a cell membrane using cellular energy.
Endocytosis The cell membrane changes shape and engulfs the particle.
Exocytosis Allows large particles to leave a cell.