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Ch 1 Earth and Space

Definitions from Earth and Space Science BJU Press Ch 11

TermDefinition
air mass a body of air with horizontally uniform temperature, humidity, and pressure that covers a ton of area
source region an air mas that forms as it slowly moves of the earth surface where temperature and humidity are fairly uniform
warm air mass air masses that are warmer than the surface they pass
cold air mass air masses that are colder than the surface they pass
stationary front a front that is not moving
warm front if warm air front is replacing cold air front
cold front if cold air front is replacing warm air front
squall line a line of violent thunderstorms
occluded front when two cold fronts trap a warm front in between them, the warm air mass rises and loses contact with ground
monsoon a seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon ), or from the northeast between October and April (the dry monsoon ).
pressure gradient force when and air mass has a higher pressure on one side than another it will be pushed in the direction of the lower pressure
geostrophic wind a wind whose direction and speed are determined by a balance of the pressure-gradient force and the force due to the earth's rotation.
cyclone low pressure areas in the atmosphere
anticyclone high pressure areas in the atmosphere
jet stream rapid currents of air high above the earth
sea breeze winds from the sea- shore
land breeze shore to sea breezes
valley breeze valley to mountain
mountain breeze mountain to valley
trade winds a wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere, especially at sea. Two belts of trade winds encircle the earth, blowing from the tropical high-pressure belts to the low-
prevailing westerlies the portion of upper and lower elevation air that flow toward the pole from 30 degrees latitude are deflected toward the east
prevailing easterlies the portion of upper and lower elevation air that flow toward the pole from 30 degrees latitude are deflected toward the west
doldrums a low pressure zone caused by the rising of warm air
horse latitudes zones of high pressure circling the earth
subpolar low pressure belt. A band of low pressure located, in the mean, between 50° and 70° latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, this belt consists of the Aleutian low and the Icelandic low. In the Southern Hemisphere
polar high The polar highs are areas of high atmospheric pressure around the north and south poles
thunderstorms most common type of storm
thunderhead cumulonimbus cloud
lightning an electrical discharge
stepped leader faint stream of electricity when a lightning bolt first begins to form
return stroke is the very bright visible flash that we see as lightning, caused by the rapid discharge of electricity. Once the step leader makes contact with a streamer, the negative charge that has accumulated along the leader channel flows rapidly to ground
forked lightning formed when a stepped leader branches
tornado a narrow funnel cloud
waterspout tornadoes in the sea
hurricane cyclone windstorms
typhoon hurricane in the water in the western pacific area
cyclone hurricane in the water in the Indian ocean area
eye the center of a hurricane
storm swell huge waves produced by high wind
storm surge higher than normal water level
lightning rod a metal rod or wire fixed to an exposed part of a building or other tall structure to divert lightning harmlessly into the ground.
heat lightning lightning that is seen even though the thunder isn't heard
intercloud lightning cloud to cloud lightning
intra-cloud lightning lighting that stay in a cloud
Created by: kjkhp