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Cells

Functions of Cell Organelles/ Cellular Transport/ Term of Solutions

TermDefinition
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) -passageway for transport of materials with the cells -synthesis of lipids
Ribosomes -site of protein synthesis
Proteasomes -site of destruction of misfolded or damaged proteins
Golgi Apparatus -synthesis of carbohydrates -packaging of materials for secretion from the cell
Mitochondria -site of aerobic cell respiration--> production of ATP & heat
Lysosomes -containers for enzymes that digest ingested foreign material (bacteria) and digest and recycle damaged tissue or cellular parts (autophagy)
Centrioles -organizer of the spindles fibers for the distribution of chromosomes during cell division
Cilia -motile cilia sweep materials across the cell surface -a sensory/ primary cilium detects chemical or mechanical signals from other cells or the tissue enviroment
Flagellum -long appendage that enables a cell to move (sperm cells)
Microvilli -folds of the cell membrane that increase a cell's surface area of absorption
Cytoskeleton -protein microfilaments that give shape to a cell, support membrane/ microvilli, and provide attachment & movement
Isotonic solution with salt concentration equal to that in cells
Hypotonic solution with salt concentration lower than that in cells
Hypertonic solution with salt concentration higher than that in cells
Diffusion movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration-->lesser concentration Ex. exchange of gases in the lungs or body tissues
Osmosis diffusion of water Ex. absorption of water by the small intestines/ kidneys
Facilitated diffusion molecules move through a membrane from an area of greater concentration --> lesser concentration Ex. intake of glucose by most cells
Active transport requires energy of ATP to move molecules from an area of lesser conc. --> greater conc. Ex. absorption of amino acids and glucose from food by the cells of the small intestine and sodium/ potassium pumps in the muscles & nerve cells
Filtration movement of water and dissolved materials are forced through a membrane from an area of higher pressure--> lower pressure Ex. formation of tissue fluid in capillaries throughout the body; first step in the formation of urine in the capillaries of the k
Phagocytosis moving cell engulfs something Ex. white blood cells engulf bacteria
Pinocytosis stationary cell engulfs something Ex. cells of the kidneys tubules reabsorb small proteins
Created by: kiaaaa20