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Sensory Perception

Biology 30-1

Sensory Receptors Specialized ends of sensory neurons that detect sensory information and send an electrochemical signal to the brain.
Sensation the "feeling" that results when neural impulses arrive at cerebrel cortex.
Perception Each person's unique interpretation of sensory information
Sensory Adaptation Decrease in responsiveness of a sensory receptor during continued stimulation.
Photoreceptors Light (rods/cones)
Chemoreceptors Taste/Odor
Mechanoreceptors Touch, pressure, pain, hearing, balance.
Thermoreceptors Temperature
Sclera Tough white outer covering of the eyeball; extra-ocular muscles attach to move eye.
Cornea Transparent tissue covering the front of they eye; does not have blood vessels; does not have nerves; is an extension of the sclera.
Choroid Thin tissue darkly pigmented layer containing blood vessels located between the sclera and retina.
Iris Circular band of muscles that controls the size of the pupil.
Pupil "Hole" in the center of the eye where light passes through.
Adaptation The process by which the iris adjusts the size of the pupil based on the light conditions, thereby controlling the amount of light that enters.
Retina Layer of tissue on the back portion of the eye that contains cells responsive to light called photoreceptors.
Rods used for night vision, dominate peripheral vision - found in high concentrations in the periphery of retina
Cones Located throughout retina, concentrated on fovea centralis & macula -3 different types: red, green and blue.
Optic Nerve Bundle of over one millions axons from gangolian cells that carry visual signals from the eye to the thalamus to the occipital love of the brain.
Aqueous Humour Clear watery fluid found in the front chamber of the eye; maintains pressure and nourishes the cornea and lens.
Glaucoma Chaneels that drain aqueous humor from front of the eye become blacked --> pressure buildup eyeball.
Vitreous Humour Clear jelly-like fluid found in the back portion of the eye; maintains shape of eye and attaches to the retina.
Lens Transparent tissue that bends light passing through the eye; to focus light; this structure must change shape.
Accomodation Focusing the lens by contracting or relaxing ciliary muscles.
Cataracts Clouding of the lens or cornea.
Astigmatism Irregularly shaped lens or cornea results in failure to focus sharply.
Myopia Near-Sighted. Lens is too round or eyeball is too long.
Hyperopia Far-Sighted. Lens is too flat, or eyeball is too short.
Fovea Centralis Central part of the macula that provides the sharpest vision; contains only cones.
Colour Blindness Inability to distinguish between or recognize some colours, typically shades of red and green.
Blind Spot Small area of the retina where the optic never leaves the eye; any image falling here will not be seen because there are no photoreceptors
Sounds Waves Small fluctuation in air pressure resulting from sound, which causes particles around the source to vibrate and move.
Outer Ear External Ear & Auditory Canal
Pinna The outside flap of the ear; made of skin and cartilage and shaped in a way that enhances sound vibrations and focuses them into the ear.
Auditory Canal Carries sound eaves to ear drum
Middle Ear Eustachain Tube, Tympanic Membrane & Ossicles
Tympanum Sound eaves in auditory canal cause vibrations
Ossicles 3 Tiny bones (hammer/malleus, anvil/incus, stirrup/stapes) linking eardrum and inner ear
Oval Window Receives sound vibrations from ossicles then transmits into cochlea.
Eustachian Tube Chamber to throat to equalize air pressure in middle ear.
Inner Ear has two functions: hearing(cochlea) and perfection of head movement/balance(vestibule)
Cochlea Perceives both pitch and loudness.
Organ of Corti Primary sound receptor with two membranes
Basilar Membrane Contains mechanoreceptor hairs, vibrates when sound waves pass cochlear fluid
Hair Cells Sensory mechanoreceptor attached to the basilar membrane in the organ of Corti within the inner ear.
Tectorial Membrane Receptor hairs bend against this membrane when basilar membrane vibrates.
Semicircular Canals Sensation of rotational movement; mechanoreceptor hairs are bent when fluid in the semicircular canals is moved by motion of the head and body.
Rotational Equilibrium Balance required while rotating the head and body.
Gravitational Equilibrium Balance required while moving the head forward and backward.
Utricle & Saccule Sensation of head position & the pull of gravity; mechanoreceptor hairs are bent by the force of gravity when the head tilts.
Otoliths Calcium carbonate granule associated with sensory receptors for detecting movement of the head.
Proprioceptors Type of mechanoreceptor found in muscles, tendons, and joints.
Taste Buds Sensory receptor in the bumps on the tongue.
Olfactory Cells Chemoreceptor for the sense of smell.
Olfactory Bulb Region of forebrain where ends of sensory nerve fibers from nose terminate and transmit olfactory information to other areas of the brain.
Created by: Carlie588
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