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Chapter 13 review

QuestionAnswer
Magma: Magma is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatile and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Volcanism: A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Lava: Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C.
Hot Spot: Hot spots are places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate magma. The presence of a hot spot is inferred by anomalous volcanism , such as the Hawaiian volcanoes within the Pacific Plate.
Ring of fire: The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Subduction Zone: Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Island Arc: An island arc is a type of archipelago, often composed of a chain of volcanoes, with arc-shaped alignment, situated parallel and close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.
Fissure: a long, narrow opening or line of breakage made by cracking or splitting, especially in rock or earth.
Mantle Plume: A mantle plume is an up welling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle.
Pluton: a body of intrusive igneous rock.
Batholith: A batholith is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. Batholiths are almost always made mostly of felsic or intermediate rock types, such as granite, quartz monzonite, or diorite.
Dike: a long wall or embankment built to prevent flooding from the sea.
Mafic: Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and ferric.
Felsic: relating to or denoting a group of light-colored minerals including feldspar, feldspathoids, quartz, and muscovite.
Viscosity: The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"
Quiet Eruption: In a quiet eruption, the lava slowly flows out and forms flat layers that eventually make a shield volcano. The lava spreads out over a large area creating a flat base with gently sloping sides.
Pahoehoe lava: The low velocity of pahoehoe flows means that the skin that forms by air-cooling is not disrupted during flow and can maintain its smooth, unbroken, well-insulating surface.
Aa Lava: The surface of the aa flow consists of free chunks of very angular pieces of lava. This difference in form reflects flow dynamics. Aa forms when lava flows rapidly.
Blocky lava: Blocky lava is so thick and slow that it barely moves along the ground. Other types of lava, like pahoehoe, aa, and pillow lava, are thinner and flow faster.
Explosive Eruption: An explosive eruption is a volcanic term to describe a violent, explosive type of eruption.
Pyroclastic material: Pyroclastic material is another name for a cloud of ash, lava fragments carried through the air, and vapor. Pyroclastic flows can extend miles from the volcano, and devastate life and property within their paths.
Volcanic ash: Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm in diameter.
Volcanic Dust: fine particles of rock powder that are blown out from a volcano and that may remain suspended in the atmosphere for long periods producing red sunsets and climatic modifications thousands of miles away.
Lapilli: rock fragments ejected from a volcano.
Volcanic Bomb: A volcanic bomb is a mass of molten rock larger than 64 mm (2.5 inches) in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of lava during an eruption. They cool into solid fragments before they reach the ground.
Volcanic Block: A volcanic block is a fragment of rock that measures more than 64 mm in diameter and is erupted in a solid condition. Blocks are formed from material from previous eruptions or from country rock and are therefore mostly accessory or accidental in origin.
Shield Volcano: A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground.
Cinder Cone: A cinder cone or scoria cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, cinders, volcanic ash, or scoria that has been built around a volcanic vent.
Composite Volcano: is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
Caldera: is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
Created by: Mariah9144