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How should clauses in a sentence be connected? Odds & Ends If there are two main clauses, they should be connected by a comma+coordinating conjunction (e.g and, or, but). Another option is to use a subordinator and make one of the clauses subordinate clause using although, because etc
When is a semicolon used? Odds & Ends To connect two sentences that are independent on their own but are related in some way.
When is a colon used? Odds & Ends To enumerate (list) or explain the thing that precedes the colon. The sentence before the colon must be a complete sentence
When is a dash (hyphen) used? Odds & Ends You can use dash an emphatic comma, semicolon, or colon.
Can 'less' be used with countable nouns? Less is a uncountable modifier. Do not use it with countable items. 10 items or less is wrong. 10 items or fewer is correct.
We have less than twenty dollars vs We have fewer than twenty dollars? Both are correct but imply different meanings. Less refers to money, fewer refers to dollar bills
Is the usage 'The numbers of' correct? Its almost always incorrect. E.g The numbers of dogs is wrong. But it can be used sometimes to make a comparison. Eg The numbers of dogs are greater this year than they were last year
Aggravate vs aggravating? Aggravate = to make worseAggravating = annoying
What to look for when the original sentence is very long? The correct choice will streamline the sentence by removing unnecessary words & structures.
As a means to vs As a means of? As a means to = the methodAs a means of = one of the methodsEarning money is a means to achieving economic independence vs Earning money is a means of achieving economic independence
As much because X as because Y Its a valid construction
They are priced to sell, and they ____ They are priced to sell, and they do (sell)
Not X but rather Y Its a valid construction
What conjunction should be ALWAYS used with between? AND
When is simple present tense used? To express eternal or frequent events, and general definitions. It does not mean the action is happening right now.
Keep verb tenses consistent? In any given sentence you should try to keep all verb teenses consistent, unless the meaning clearly dictates otherwise. In such cases, present perfect and past perfect are often used.
When is present perfect used? The present perfect tense has one foot in the past and one foot in the present. It is made up with has/have + present participle. It is used to indicate continued action or continued effect. Since and Within phrases use present perfect.
When is past perfect used? Past perfect is "Past of the Simple Past". It is used to clarify or emphasize a sequence of actions in the past. It is formed as had + past participle
How are progressive tenses formed? All three progressive tenses uses present participle (ing form).
What should you look for when you find a bossy verb, such as demand or propose, in a sentence? If the sentence includes a demand, the sentence should have THAT after the bossy verb or the infinitive TO. Verb WANT always takes infinitive. I WANT her to go to the retreat and not I WANT that she go to the retreat.
What is active and passive voice? In the active voice,the subject of the sentence performs the action.In the passive voice,the subject of the sentence has an action performed on it by someone or something.Dont automatically dismiss the choices in passive voice.
Difference between will and would? Would expresses uncertainity. Will expresses certainity
Helping verbs? Be, do, and Have are called helping verbs. They should match in tense with the primary verb. Example: They are priced to sell, and they do.
For subject-verb agreement, how to find the subject? By removing middlemen and warmups. If you can remove a phrase from the sentence, and it still makes sense, the removed phrase was a middlemen or warmup. Examples: prepositional phrases,subordinate clauses,modifiers -ing and -ed
When we have to match up two subject-verb pairs, what should be the order? First, match up the subject-verb pair in the mail clause, then in the subordinate clause
And vs additive phrases? Only 'And' can change a singular subject into a plural one. Singular subjects followed by additive phrases remain singular subjects. Examples of additive phrases: along with, in addition to, as well as, including etc
When the subject contains a phrase s such as Or, Either..or, Neither...Nor, what verb form should be used for agreement with the subject? Find the noun nearest to the verb and make sure that the verb agrees in number with this noun
What is the polarity of collective nouns such as army, crowd etc for the sake of subject-verb agreement? Collective nouns are ALMOST ALWAYS singular even though they represent groups
What is the polarity of indefinite pronouns (that end in -one, -body, or -thing) for the sake of subject-verb agreement Indefinite pronouns are usually singular. There are 5 exceptions SANAM (Some, Any, None,All, More) that may be singular or plural. You need to look at the prepositional phrase that follows them to know their polarity
What is the effect of a preceeding Each/Every on the polarity of a subject? It makes the subject singular. Example: Each of these shirts IS pretty
The number of = Singular/plural?A number of = Singular/plural? Singular. Plural.
What polarity do quantity phrases such as majority, minority, half of have? They can be singular or plural. Polarity is determined by the prepositional phrase following them (Just like in case of SANAM)
What are my common beliefs about subject and verb? 1) Subject is a single word (noun). Truth: It can be a phrase or even a clause. In that case, its polarity is singular 2)Subject always precedes the verb. Truth:Their order might be inverted. Flip them before you determine the polarity
If you cant determine the polarity of a subject then which one should you assume? Singular
Created by: deepak.bhavi

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