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Cell Bio Cell Parts

TermDefinition
plasma membrane - controls how molecules move in and out of cell - helps with cell-cell signaling and cell adhesion
nucleus - filled w/ chromatin - chromatin is made of DNA and proteins - location of mRNA and tRNA synthesis
nuclear envelope -double membrane - encloses nucleus contents - outer nuclear membrane is continuous with rER
nuclear pore allows specific large molecules to move between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleolus - substructure of nucleus - most rRNA is made here - ribosomes are assembled here
mitochondria - powerhouse - generate ATP by oxidizing glucose and fatty acids - have their own DNA
lysosomes - have acidic lumen - degrade materials internalized by cell - breaks down small and large molecules in cell - release nutrients from digested food
peroxisomes - remove toxic molecules - break down fatty acids to make acetyl groups for biosynthesis
ribosomes - molecular machines - made of rRNAs and ribosomal proteins - translate mRNAs into proteins
endoplasmic reticulum, ER - located in cytoplasm - membrane-bound
rER - ribosomes bound to it - makes and sorts secretory, lysosomal, and some membrane-bound proteins
sER - no ribosomes attached - synthesizes lipids - detoxifies some hydrophobic compounds
golgi apparatus - processes and modifies proteins made by rER
vesicles - small, membrane-bound sacs - located in eukaryotic cytoplasm - specific ones are involved in secretion, exocytosis, endocytosis, and phagocytosis
microtubule - type of cytoskeleton - made of tubulin - helps organize cytoplasm - guides intracellular transport
centrosome - organizes microtubules - near nucleus in animal cells - forms the 2 poles of spindle in early mitosis
centrioles - cylindrical microtubules in centrosome of animal cells - also found in base of cilia and flagella (basal bodies)
actin filaments - type of cytoskeleton - major constituent of euk cells - helps w/ cell movement and muscle contraction
intermediate filaments - issa cytoskeleton type - form ropelike networks in animal cells - help resist outside tension ergo strengthens cell
extracellular matrix - complex networks of polysaccharides and proteins secreted by cells - structural component of tissues
chloroplasts - carries out photosynthesis by capturing sunlight - surrounded by double membrane - has internal membrane-bound sacs (thylakoids) - thylakoid contains chlorophyll -chlorophyll absorbs the light energy
vacuole - stores water, ions, nutrients - degrades macromolecules - helps w/ cell elongation during growth - 2 types: storage and lytic
cell wall - mostly made of cellulose - maintains cell's shape - protects cells against mechanical stress
Created by: makanjuolae