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Env Sci Ch. 8/9

SFHS Environmental Science

What is a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed? population
What population property describes the number of individuals of the same species in that live in a given unit of area? population density
In what type of relationships are one species harmed while the other species benefits? parasitism and predation
Give an example of parasitism a tick feeding on a dog
In what type of relationship do both species benefit and are helpful to one another? mutalism
In what type of relationship does one species benefit while the other species neither benefits or harmed? commensalism
Give an example of commensalism. A bird makes a nest in a tree without affecting the tree.
In what type of relationship are both species harmed or they negatively affect each other? competition
Give an example of competition fox and coyotes are predators of the same prey
What population property describes the pattern of distribution of organisms in a population? population dispersion
What population property describes the the number of individuals it contains? population number
What are 3 types of dispersion? even, clumped, or random
What type of dispersion is the most common? clumped
What are factors that are effected by the number of individuals in a population in a particular area? Density Dependent factors
What are some examples of density dependent factors? disease, competition for resources, parasites, food shortages
What are some examples of density independent factors? Food, earthquake, volcanic eruption, temperature changes, habitat destruction
What are factors that have no relation the number of individuals but instead are related to natural disasters? Density Independent factors
What is the maximum number of offspring that a given organism can produce? reproductive potential
What 3 factors influence reproductive potential? produce more offspring at a time, reproduce more often, and reproduce earlier in life.
What reproductive potential factor has the MOST effect? reproduce earlier in life
What is the number of organisms of a population that a particular environment can support over time? carrying capacity
What does exponential growth look like on a graph? J-shape
What is the fastest rate at which its populations can grow? biotic potential
What the study of human population growth? demography
What contributes to waterborne diseases? lack of infrastructure, local water supply being used for drinking, washing, and sewage
What are 3 examples of waterborne diseases? Dysentery, typhoid, cholera
What type of countries have a slow population growth? developed countries
What type of country would have a rapid population growth? developing countries
Why is wood considered a limited resource in some developing countries? because wood is main fuel source
If a country has high growth rates.... what does that say about the age structure of that country? that there are more young people than older people
What is farmland that can be used to grow crops? arable land
What is the percentage of newborn individuals in a population that can be expected to survive to a given age known as? survivorship
What type of survivorship live to old age? late loss population (type I)
What type of survivorship die at all ages? constant loss population (type II)
What type of survivorship die at young ages? early loss population (type III)
What is a relationship in which two species live in close association called? symbiosis
Compare niche and habitat. the niche of an organism is its pattern of use of its habitat and its interactions with other organisms
What is the average number of years members of a population are likely to live called? life expectancy
What is a model that describes how economic and social changes affect population growth rates? demographic transition
In which stage of demographic transition was there little population growth due to high infant mortality? preindustrial
In which stage of demographic transition do death rates decline but birth rates still remain high, so a population explosion occurs? transitional
In which stage of demographic transition does the population growth slow because the birth rate decreases and the population size stabilizes? industrial
In which stage of demographic transition does the birth rate drop below replacement level, so the population size begins to decrease? post industrial
What term refers to the number of births (usually per year) per 1000 women of child bearing age? fertility rate
What is the term that refers to the average number of children a parent must have in order to "replace" themselves? replacement level fertility
What is the replacement level fertility number in the US? 2
Why does the education of women lower birth rates? because they learn family planning techniques and they work instead of carrying and bearing many children
Created by: dcrovato
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