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Envi & Eco Concepts

QuestionAnswer
A study of interrelationship of different organisms with each other and with their environment. Ecology
a) A Greek word meaning habitat or place of living. b) A Greek word meaning to study. a) Oikos b) Logos
A German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist, who defined ecology as the study of the relationship of organisms with their environment. Ernst Heinrich Philip August Haeckel (1869)
Two people who stated that ecology is the study of the ditribution and abundance of organisms. Andrewartha and Birch (1954)
The person who stated that ecology is the study of ecosystems. Eugene Odum (1971)
A factor of ecology that includes ambient temperature, amount of sunlight, and pH of the water in which an organism lives. Abiotic factors
A factor of ecology that includes the availability of food organisms, and the presence of conspecifics, competitors, predators, and parasites. Biotic factors
A classification of ecology that deals with the study of individual species, organisms, and its population. Autecology
A classification of ecology that deals with the study of communities, their composition, their behavior, and relation with the environment; aka Ecology of Communities. Synecology
A study under Synecology that focuses on the population including its size, density, structure, migration patterns, and interaction between organisms of same population. Population Ecology
A study under Synecology that takes a look on the interactions between the different species and how their numbers and sizes all mesh together. Community Ecology
A study under Synecology that contributes to the understanding of ecology by adding abiotic factors to the items analyzed, alongside the biotic factors involved. Ecosystem Ecology
Three branches under Synecology A) Population ecology B) Community ecology C) Ecosystem ecology
A classification of ecology that deals with the study of interaction of organisms in the water. Aquatic ecology
Two classifications of aquatic ecology A) Marine water ecology B) Freshwater ecology
Running water such as in the river, stream, and spring. Lotic
Standing water such as in the pond, lake, freshwater river, and coral reefs. Lentic
A classification of ecology that deals with the study of interaction of organisms on land. Terrestrial ecology
Three classifications of terrestrial ecology A) Grassland ecology B) Forest ecology C) Desert ecology
A classification of ecology that examines the gross and net production of different ecosystems like agriculture, freshwater, sea water. Productivity ecology
A classification of ecology that looks at the smallest fundamental levels of life, that is the cellular level. Microbial ecology
Two kingdoms mainly involved in microbial ecology. A) Kingdom monera B) Kingdom protista
A classification of ecology that deals with the study of gross effect of radiation amd radioactive substances over the environment and living organisms. Radiation ecology
A classification of ecology that deals with the universal predictions about how pollutants affect ecosystems. Pollution ecology
A classification of ecology that is concerned with the development of partially or wholly regenerating ecosystems for supporting the life of man during long space flights. Space ecology
A limited space within which living beings interact with nonliving matter at a high level of interdependence to form an environmental unit. Ecosystem
Large areas like arctic, tall grass prairie, hardwood forest, etc, are often called? Biomes
Origin of the word ecosystem Greek "oikos" and "systema"
Five alternative terms that ecologists coined for ecosystem. Biocoenosis, microcosm, holocoen, biosystem, geobiocoenois
British ecologist who proposed the term ecosystem A. G. Tansley (1935)
American who offered the classic definition of ecology: its mainspring is energy flow through several trophic levels, ensuring the transformation of material from one state to another. Raymond L. Lindeman (1942)
Consists of several relays, whereby, nonliving matter is turned into living tissues by plant then digested by herbivores which are consumed by carnivores then undergoes predation. Food chain
Two categories of abiotic factors Climatic, edaphic
Category of abiotic factors that includes the climatic regime with physical factors in the environment such as light, humidity, etc. Climatic factors
Category of abiotic factors which relate to the composition and structure of the soil. Edaphic factors
Three divisions of the biotic community Autotrophs, saprothrops, and heterotrophs
Forms the core of all biotic systems; also called producers, transducers, or convertors. Autotrophs
Gets their energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms; also called consumers. Heterotrophs
Those that eat producers such as plants as source of food. Primary consumer/herbivores
Consumes other organisms. Secondary consumer/carnirvores
Have mixed diet that includes both plants and animals. Omnivores
Breaks down the complex organic compounds in dead matter; also called reducers or decomposers. Saprotrophs
Types of terrestrial ecosystem Forest, desert
Natural plant communities with dominance of flowering plants. Forest ecosystem
Occurs in region with an annual rainfall of less than 25 cm. Desert ecosystem
Covers 0.80% of the Earth's surface, inhabits 0.009% of its total water, generates nearly 3% of its net primary production, and contains 41% of the world's known fish species. Freshwater ecosystem
Type of freshwater ecosystem that is largely based on the autotroph algae. Lentic ecosystem
Ecosystem of rivers, streams, and other moving bodies of water Lotic ecosystem
Covers approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. Marine water/ecosystem
Average salinity of seawater 35 parts per thousand of water
Approximately 85% of dissolved materials in seawater Sodium and chlorine
Four categorical areas that make uo planet Earth Biosphere, hydosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere
States that matter cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transformed including the transformation between matter and energy. Law of conservation of matter
Facilitates the transfer of matter from one form and/or location to another; aka nutrient cycle, cycle of nature. Biogeochemical cycle
Region occupied by soil, land, and earth crust Lithosphere
Region occupied by living organisms Biosphere
Region occupied by air and space Atmosphere
Region covered by water Hydrosphere
Major categories of biogeochemical cycles Sedimentary, gaseous cycles
Two cycles under sedimentary cycle Phosphorus, sulfur
Four cycles under gaseous cycle Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrological/water
Elements required by living organisms in smaller amounts like boron used mainly by green plants, copper used by some enzymes, and molybdenum by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Micro elements
Elements required by living organisms in larger amount such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur. Macro elements
A place or location where a biogeochemical element is in its highest concentration; abiotic factors. Reservoir
Where chemicals are held for only short periods of time; biotic factor. Exchange pools
Amount of time that a chemical is held in one place Resident time
Refers to the difference between the amount of elements entering and leaving the reservoir. Influx
Human activities influencing biogeochemical cycles and climate change Use of phosphorus fertilizers, mining of fossil fuels, production of sulfur dioxide, and cultivation of legumes and use of nitrogen fertilizers.
Responsible for almost all of the transport of eroded sediment and phosphorus from land to water bodies. Runoff
Newly studied biogeochemical cycles Mercury, [human-caused] atrazine cycle
Fourth most abundant element in the universe;the building block of life. Carbon
Two categories of global carbon cycle Geological (large time scale), biological/physical (shorter time scales)
Small bodies that formed from the solar nebula Planetesimals
A weak acid derived from the reaction between atmospheric carbon dioxide and water Carbonic acid
Process of combination of carbonic acid with calcium and magnesium in the Earth's crust to form insoluble carbonates Weathering
A process in which one lithospheric plate descends beneath another, often as a result of folding or faulting. Subduction
Common term for the mineral calcium carbonate Limestone
Reverse of photosynthesis; process of effectively burning carbohydrates with the help of plants and animals. Respiration
The process in which plants absorb solar energy and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce carbohydrates. Photosynthesis
Respiration that consumes organic matter mostly by bacteria and fungi Decomposition
Measures the amount and health of plants on land Normalized difference vegetation index
Measures the amount of phytoplankton in the ocean Chlorophyll a Concentration
Are consumed by respiring zooplankton (microscopic marine animals) within a matter of days to weeks Photosynthetic microscopic phytoplankton
Periods of low carbon dioxide concentration correspond to ______, while higher carbon dioxide concentrations are linked to _______. Ice ages, warmer periods
Amount of carbon the human activities add per year 5.5 billion tons
Tenth most abundant element in the universe Sulfur
It comprises many vitamins, proteins, and hormones that play critical roles in both climate and in the health of various ecosystems. Sulfur
Recite the sulfur cycle Weathering of rocks (release of sulfur) > converted to sulfate > taken up by plants, consumed by animals > organisms die and decompose, sulfur is released again
Fraction of sulfur that reaches the atmosphere stemming from human activities 1/3
Sulfur also acts as a regulator of what? Global climate
Other word for nonliving components Physicochemical factors
Organic substances under edaphic factors Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, humic substances, etc.
Inorganic substances under edaphic factors Water, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus
A process which synthesize a high emergy complex organic compound from the inorganic raw materials utilizing the aid of the sun. Photosynthesis
How many percent of the significant land does desert ecosystem occupy? 17%
Freshwater ecosystem occupies _____ percent of earth's surface and _____ of its total water. 0.80 and 0.009
Contains 4% of the Earth's known fishes Freshwater ecosystem
Biogeochemical cycles are called ____ cycles because they involve the transfer of compounds that provide nutritional support to living organisms. Nutrient
Is the slowest sedimentary cycle? Phosphorus
Cannot be found in the air in gaseous cycle because it's usually liquid at standard temperatures and pressures Phosphorus
Natural form is solid and is restricted to sedimentary cycle and its form. Sulfur
Sulfur is transported to physical processes like? Wind, erosion, and geological events like eruption
Involves transportation of matter to atmosphere Gaseous cycle
Absorbs infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming and climate change Carbon
One of the most important element that sustain life on earth. Carbon
Have substantial effect in earth's heat balance Carbon dioxide and methane gases
The most abundant element in the atmosphere and found in terrestrial ecosystems Nitrogen gas (N2)
Nitrogen cycle is the most important (blank) cycle for plant life. Nutrient
Main driving factor of oxygen cycle is (blank) because of oxygen-carbon cycle Photosynthesis
Most important chemical of life for all living organisms. Water (H20)
Percent of water is in solid state. 93%
(blank) conditions have a significant imoact on the biogeochem cycle Climatic
Process where the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight breaks apart oxygen co taining molecules Photolysis
Primary sources of sulfur Burning cole, internal combustion, engine, volcanic eruption
Metabolism of sugar creating CO2 Respiration
Smells like rotten egg Hydrogen sulfide
Bacteria oxidized sulfide Thiobacillus thioxidants
Most common metal sulfide Iron sulfide
Transforming N2 into usable forms through nirtogen fixing bacteria Nitrogen fixation
Product of nitrogen fixation Ammonia NH3
Process where ammonia is converted to nitrate Nitrification
Process where the outcome is nitrogen gas Haber Bosch
Processes that use oxygen Combustion, respiration, decomposition, rusting
Processes that produce oxygen Plants and sunlight
This transfer occurs when some molecules in the water mass eject themselves from the surface of water Evaporation
The evaporation of water through minute pores or stomata in the leaves of plants Transpiration
This condition occurs as the consequence of either cooling or mixing of air masses of different temperatures Condensation
Water vapor in the atmosphere is released to form (blank) Precipitation
Are found in all proteins and DNA Nitrogen Atoms
When fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorous are carried in runoff, this is Eutrophication
Process in which organic forms of phosphate can be made avilable to plants by bacteria that breaks down organic matter to inorganic forms of phosphorus Mineralization
Change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns that is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variation in solar radiation, plate tectonic, and volcanic eruptions Climate change
At what year did the World Meteorological Organization proposed the term climatic change? 1966
What does IPCC stand for? Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
UNFCCC meaning UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
Factors that can shape climate Climate forcings or forcing mechanism
Forcing mechanism or climate forcing include processes such as Orbital variation, solar output, volcanism, plate tectonics
Scientists generally defined the five components of earth's climate system that are Atmosphere, cryosphere, biosohere, lithosohere, hydrosphere
Ice bergs, glaciers Cryosphere
Is a gas in atmosphere that absorbs amd emits radiation within the thermal infrared range Greenhouse gas
Process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without it atmosphere Greenhouse effect
Presidentially decree no. 1152 is also known as Philippine environmental code
Philippine environmental code was created in what year and who is the president during that time 1977, Marcos
How many titles amd sections do PD 1152 have 7 titles and 64 sections
Renewable energy act was approved by whom on what year Arroyo, dec. 16 2008
What is republic act 9513 Renewable act of 2008
RA 9729 Cimate change act of 2009
Sections of RA 9729 26 sections
Chaoters and sections of RA 9513
Created by: macastillo99