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nrtc OB chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
ante before
antepartum time before delivery
Gravida any pregnancy, regardless of duration, including the present one
prenatal time before birth
Nulligravida a woman who has never been pregnant
Para # of births after 20weeks gestation, regardless of whether the infants were born alive or dead
Preterm pregnancy that ends after 20weeks and before 37weeks gestation
Postterm pregnancy that goes beyond 40weeks gestation
Primigravida a woman pregnant for the first time
Multigravida a woman who is in her second or subsequent pregnancy
Nullipara a woman who has not given birth at more than 20weeks gestation
Primipara a woman who has given birth to a fetus (dead/alive) that had reached at least 20weeks gestation
Multipara a woman who has given birth 2 or more times to fetuses that had reached at least 20weeks gestation
Stillbirth a fetus born dead after 20weeks gestation
EDD estimated date of delivery
GTPALM used for recording a woman's pregnancy history
Nagele's Rule used to determine the woman's estimated date of delivery
how is Nagele's Rule done identify the 1st day of the last normal menstrual period/count backwards 3months/add 7 days
lunar months are used for what calculating pregnancy
abortion pregnancy terminated before the fetus reaches 20weeks gestation- also can be referred to as a miscarriage
what are the 3 categories of signs of possible pregnancy presumptive (suggest)/probable (probably)/ positive (definite)
how early in the pregnancy is the hormone hCG present in the woman's urine as early as 1week after conception
pregnancy tests are considered what category of pregnancy signs probable sign
name some presumptive signs of pregnancy amenorrhea, N/V, frequent urination, fatigue, quickening, breast tenderness
name some probable signs of pregnancy uterine enlargement, pigmentation changes, Goodell's sign, Hegar's sign. Chadwick's sign, Ballottement, Braxton Hicks contractions, positive pregnancy test
what is a positive sign of pregnancy Ultrasound visualization
Goodell's Sign softening of cervix
Hegar's Sign softening of lower portion of uterus
Chadwick's Sign bluish purple discoloration of vaginal mucous membrane caused by increased vascularity or pelvic congestion
Ballottement rebounding of fetus in amniotic fluid felt by examiner during pelvic examination
Braxton Hicks Contractions painless, irregular uterine contractions; may be felt by the woman as a tightening across the abdomen
signs & symptoms of the first trimester positive pregnancy test, amenorrhea, fainting, morning nausea, heartburn, odor sensitivity, pigmentation deepens on the face/abdomen, weight gain, abdomen enlarges, frequent urination
signs & symptoms of the second trimester occasional pain in groin, increased sexual pleasure/desire, white discharge, orthostatic hypotension, anemia, perineal itching, pressure on rectum, leg muscle spasms, abnormal labs, stress with exercise, mood swings, constipation, stuffy nose, gingivitis
more signs & symptoms of second trimester leaking colostrum from nipples, tingling fingers, sensitivity to medications, DVT, fetus moves/kicks
signs & symptoms of third trimester leaking colostrum from nipples, voice changes, easily tired, gestational hypertension, increased risk for carpal tunnel, decreased appetite, shortness of breath, varicose veins, lightening, delivery
lightening fetal head engages and the uterus "drops"
what stimulates the growth of the uterus estrogen & progesterone
name the hormones essential in pregnancy estrogen, progesterone, thyroxine (T4), hCG, hPL, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, relaxin, prolactin, oxytocin
effacement thinning of the cervix
dilation enlargement of the opening to the cervix
what causes the softening of the cervix hormonal influence that causes an increased blood supply, increase in secretions from the cervical glands
what is the mucous plug barrier to prevent organisms from entering the uterus-formed by secretions from cervical glands-usually expelled during labor
what is the role of the hormone Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and other pelvic joints and ripening the cervix in preparation for labor
Montgomery's glands lubricate/protect the nipple in preparation for breastfeeding
Striae pinkish-white lines caused by stretching of the elastic tissues as the breasts enlarge
colostrum thin, yellowish fluid excreted by the breasts as early as the 10th week of gestation-"pre-milk"
how is Lactation initiated profound drop in estrogen/progesterone levels after delivery of the placenta-allows an increase in prolactin levels
supine hypotensive syndrome (aortocaval compression) vena cava compressed when a pregnant woman lies flat on her back-decreases cardiac output
when is cardiac output best for the pregnant woman lying on her side
the pregnant woman breathes more deeply for what reason to maintain oxygen for herself and her fetus
oxygen consumption increases to what percent during pregnancy 15-40%
normal Hemoglobin in pregnant women 11-12
normal Hematocrit in pregnant women 33-46
normal RBCs level in pregnant women 4.5-6.5
normal WBCs level in pregnant women 5000-15000-rises to 25000 during labor & postpartum
normal Fibrinogen levels in pregnant women 300-600
why do pregnant women experience dyspnea increased pressure the uterus places on the diaphragm
why do pregnant women experience epistaxis (nose bleeds) increased vascularity from increased estrogen
gestational diabetes periodic hyperglycemia occurring during pregnancy
why do pregnant women have an increased risk of UTI because of stasis of urine in the bladder
asymptomatic bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
why does Renal Plasma Flow increase by 75% to remove metabolic wastes of the mother and fetus
pyelonephritis infection of the upper urinary tract
fluid retention in pregnant women poses a major problem during labor for what reason if she already has fluid retention and is given IV fluids containing oxytocin (Pitocin) it can result in water intoxication
"waddling gait" fetal head settles into the pelvis and a slight separation of the symphysis pubis occurs-facilitates the passing of the fetus through the pelvis
diastasis recti abdominis rectus abdominis muscles separate during pregnancy
why is carpal tunnel common in pregnant women weight gain and edema cause compression of the medial nerve-particularly around the wrist
chloasma (melisma) blotchy/brownish "mask of pregnancy"-linea alba darkens and becomes a darkened line in the abdomen-called linea nigra
striae gravidarum stretch marks-pinkish or purple lines caused by a weakening of the elastic tissues
increased levels of estrogen & progesterone do what to the liver alter hepatic functions and cause accumulation of drugs (medicines) in the body
Body image a person's perception of his/her own body
the 4 aspects of body image appearance, function, sensation, mobility
FDA Pregnancy Risk Category A evidence of fetal harm is remote-no risk
FDA Pregnancy Risk Category B animal studies have not shown a risk in second or third trimesters-no data on first trimester
FDA Pregnancy Risk Category C animal studies show negative effect on the fetus but not yet proven on the pregnant woman-risk cannot be ruled out
FDA Pregnancy Risk Category D positive evidence of fetal damage when the drug is used during pregnancy-need for drug should be carefully evaluated
FDA Pregnancy Risk Category X human/animal studies show definite fetal risks-should NOT be used during pregnancy
what are the 4 developmental tasks the pregnant women goes through pregnancy validation, fetal embodiment, fetal distinction, role transition
what are the 3 stages the expectant father goes through announcement phase, adjustment phase, focus phase
elderly primips mothers that become pregnant for the first time after 35yrs of age
Created by: ABusey83