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nrtc OB chapters 2&3

period of rapid change to mature the reproductive systems puberty
when does puberty start/end starts when secondary sex characteristics appear/ends when the mature sperm are formed and when the menstrual cycle occurs
menarche first menstrual period
surrounds delicate tissue, protects vagina from injury, covered by pubic hair mons pubis
obstetric perineum labia minora both meet at the fourchette above the anus/ often the site for lacerations during childbirth
introitus & hymen vaginal opening & thin elastic membrane just inside the vaginal opening
the 5 structures that make up the Vestibule urethral meatus, Skene's ducts, ducts from Bartholin's glands (2), fourchette
area between the vagina & anus perineum
episiotomy incision in the perineal area to prevent tears in the tissues during childbirth
dyspareunia pelvic weakness or painful intercourse
female organs of reproduction ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
folds that allow the vagina to stretch during childbirth rugae
functions of the vagina passageway for uterine secretions and menstrual flow escapes the uterus, sexual intercourse, part of the birth canal
Bartholin's glands provide lubrication to the vagina during arousal-not visible
normal vaginal pH after puberty 4-5
round & broad ligaments supports the uterus and during pregnancy becomes stretched-causes discomfort
the 3 parts of the uterus fundus (upper/round), corpus (body), cervix (lower)
the 3 layers that make up the fundus & corpus of the uterus perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
functions of the mucosal lining of the cervix vaginal lubrications, bacteriostatic agent, alkaline environment to protect sperm from acidic vagina
3 functions of the uterus menstruation, pregnancy, labor/delivery
small finger-like projections extending from the ends of fallopian tubes fimbriae
functions of the fallopian tubes passageway for sperm to meet ovum, fertilization site, safe/nourishing environment for ovum/zygote (fertilized ovum), transportation for the ovum/zygotes to the corpus of uterus
graafian follicle mature follicle that contains the ovum that is released during ovulation
progesterone maintain/repairs the lining of the uterus for implantation of the ovum
functions of ovaries development/maturation/expulsion of ovum, secretes hormones ( estrogen/progesterone)
climacteric menopause
4 bones that make up the pelvis 2 innominate bones (hip bones), sacrum, coccyx
fuse to make up the innominate bones ilium, ischium, pubis
false pelvis upper part of the pelvis
ischial spines important landmarks that represent the shortest distance of the pelvic cavity/used to determine how far the fetal head has descended into the birth canal
symphysis pubis rounded arch under which the fetal head must pass through to emerge from the birth canal
linea terminalis imaginary line that separates the pelvis into true/false pelvis
true pelvis lower part of pelvis-consists of the inlet, pelvic cavity, and outlet-MOST important during childbirth
what determines the size and shape of the pelvis bony circumference of the true pelvis-sacrum/coccyx/lower part of the innominate bones
why is the pubic arch assessed for curvature-determine type of pelvis
diagonal conjugate used to predict pelvic size- distance from lower part of the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory
how is the diagonal conjugate measured 2 fingers placed in the vagina and touching the sacral promontory-distance is usually 11.5cm
the 4 basic pelvic types gynecoid (normal), android (male), anthropoid (long), platypelloid (wide/transverse)
female reproductive life begin/ends begin with puberty/ends with menopause
when does ovulation occur 14 days before the beginning of the next menstrual cycle-ovum is fertile for the next 24hrs
how many days can the sperm survive 5 days
lactation producing milk to feed and nourish the infant
acini is found where and what is it's function found in the lining of the alveoli (in breasts) and secretes the milk
myoepithelial cells contractile cells that contract the alveolus an deject milk into the lactiferous ducts (ducts in the nipple where the infant gets the milk as they suck)
what hormone is released when the infant sucks prolactin-stimulates the acini to produce milk
oxytocin stimulates the contraction of the myoepithelial cells
does breast size indicate the amount of milk to be produced NO
DNA master protein that controls the development and functioning of all cells
the 4 molecules that make up DNA adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
chromosomes thread-like spiral structures found in the nucleus of each cell-contain DNA
how many chromosomes are in each cell within the human body 46
gametes sex cells-1 pair in each human body cell
genes makes up the chromosomes-segments of DNA that control heredity
mitosis continuous/body grows & develops and dead body cells are replaced, each daughter cell contains the same number # of chromosomes as parent cell
meiosis reproductive cells undergo 2 sequential divisions-number of chromosomes in each cell is reduced to half
spermatogenesis process of mitosis in the sperm
diploid number the 46 chromosomes in a body cell (mitosis)
haploid number 23 chromosomes in each cell (meiosis)
oogenesis process of mitosis in the ovum
gametogenesis the form of gametes by meiosis
what determines the sex of the baby type of spermatozoon (sperm cell) that penetrates the ovum
conception union of egg and sperm-also called fertilization
what is the time frame for fertilization of the ovum after its released from the ovary 6-24hrs
zygote formed when the nucleus of the sperm and the ovum unite during fertilization
morula solid mass of 16 cells
blastocyst formed structure resulting from fluid space forming around the morula ball after large cells mass on it
trophoblasts eventually form the placenta-secrete enzymes that allow them to invade the thickened uterine lining
trophoblastic layer forms the chorion in pregnancy-cells provide nutrition for the embryo from nutrients carried in the maternal blood-blastocysts mature rapidly
chorionic villi root-like projections that reach out from the layer of cells into the uterine endometrium-extend from the chorion into the endometrium-major site of exchange between maternal/fetal circulation
teratogenic agents drugs, viruses, radiation, etc. that exert damaging effects on to the developing embryo
embryonic period 2-8weeks after conception-most of the basic organ structures are formed
when is the growing embryo called a fetus 8 weeks to birth
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm germ cell layers that become all of the tissues and organs of the embryo
structures derived from the ectoderm outer layer of skin, oil glands/hair follicles, nails/hair, external sense organs, mucous membrane of mouth/anus
structures derived from the mesoderm true skin, skeleton, bone/cartilage, connective tissue, muscles, blood/blood vessels, kidneys/gonads
structures derived from the endoderm lining of trachea/pharynx/bronchi/digestive tract/bladder/urethra
amnion inner membrane that forms the amniotic cavity
chorion outer membrane that encloses the growing amnion
amniotic sac the fusion of the amnion & chorion-contains the amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid clear/slightly straw colored liquid-98% water and contains traces of protein, glucose, fetal lanugo (hair), fetal urine, and vernix caseosa
amniocentesis examining amniotic fluid for diagnostic purposes
hydramnios more than 2L of amniotic fluid present at term (end of pregnancy)
oligohydramnios 300mL or less of amniotic fluid at term (end of pregnancy)
normal amount of amniotic fluid present at term 800-1000mL
placenta permits the exchange of materials carried in the bloodstream between the mother and the embryo/fetus
decidua lining of the uterus
functions of the amniotic fluid allows free movement of embryo/fetus, prevents amnion from adhering to the embryo/fetus, cushions embryo/fetus against injury, maintains constant temperature, fluid homeostasis, prevents umbilical cord compression
placental functions protection, nutrition, respiration, excretion, hormone production
placental transfer movement of gases, nutrients, waste materials, drugs, other substances across the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation or from fetal to maternal circulation
what effect does hypertension have on the placental blood flow it constricts the uterine artery-reduces blood flow
4 hormones produced by the placenta progesterone, estrogen, hCG, hPL
functions of progesterone maintain uterine lining for implantation of the zygote, reduce uterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion, prepare the glands of breast for lactation
functions of estrogen stimulate uterine growth, increase the blood flow to uterine vessels, stimulate development of the breast ducts to prepare for lactation
how many veins/arteries are in the umbilical cord 2 arteries 1 vein
Wharton's Jelly thick substance that is a physical buffer to prevent kinking of the cord and interference with circulation
umbilical artery carries deoxygenated blood to the placenta and releases carbon dioxide & other waste products
umbilical vein carries oxygen & nutrients from the placenta to the fetus
at what week in the pregnancy is fetal blood circulation well established after week 4
what are the 3 fetal circulatory shunts ductus venosus, foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus
Ductus venosus diverts some blood away from the liver as it returns from the placenta-closes after birth when the blood flow from the umbilical cord stops
Foarmen ovale diverts most blood from the right atrium directly to the left atrium, rather than circulating it to the lungs
Ductus arteriosus diverts most blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta
when does the foramen ovale close after birth temporarily within 2hrs after birth and then permanently by age 3months
when does the ductus arteriosus close after birth temporarily within 15hrs and permanently in about 3weeks
when does the ductus venosus close after birth temporarily when the cord is cut and permanently in about 1week
what supplement is VITAL during child bearing age FOLIC ACID
organogenesis period first 8 weeks-most critical time for fetal development
age of viability 20 weeks gestation-fetus may survive outside the uterus
surfactant helps keep the alveoli in the lungs open during respiration-minimal still even at 28 weeks
what is the term for a fetus born past 42 weeks gestation postterm or postmature
multifetal pregnancy more than one fetus develops in the uterine cavity at the same time
monozygotic twins identical-result of splitting from 1 fertilized egg-ovum splits into 2 identical monozygotes sometime before the 15th day of gestation
dizygotic twins fraternal (nonidentical) -2 ova are fertilized by 2 sperm-each has its own amniotic sac and placenta
who is at a higher risk for multifetal pregnancies older women, those using fertility drugs and in vitro fertilization
another term for portal circulation liver circulation
what causes the foramen ovale to close pressure changes
what happens if the ductus arteriosus does not close the infant develops a PDA (patent ductus arteriosus
drugs used to treat PDA IV Indomethicin, IV Ibuprofen, Prostaglandin Inhibitors, NSAIDS
who is at a higher risk for developing a PDA premature infants
Created by: ABusey83