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Biology Midterm

Midterm: Monday 1/16

chemistry definition the study of matter
matter definition anything that has mass and occupies space
mass definition quantity of matter
What are atoms known as? quantity of matter
atom definition the simplest particle of a substance that contains all properties of that surface.
protons positive charge found in the nucleus
neutrons no charge found in the nucleus
electrons negative charge that surrounds the nucleus
elements definition substances composed of 1 type of atom that is "pure"
isotopes definition atoms of an element with a different number of neutrons. Most are radioactive.
compounds definition composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio, and are formed through chemical bonds.
Covalent Bond qualities share electrons, form molecules
Ionic Bond qualities transfers electrons and involves ions
energy definition the ability to do work
solid definition low energy where particles are tightly packed. It has a definite volume and definite shape.
liquid definition medium energy where particles are close together, but can move. It has definite volume but no definite shape.
gas definition high energy where particles move freely. There is no definite volume and no definite shape.
chemical reaction definition one or more substances changed to produce one or more different substances. Usually expressed as a formula.
reactants the pure element before the final product
products the elements formed together in a new substance
exothermic a chemical reaction where energy is released
endothermic a chemical reaction where energy is absorbed
activation energy definition energy required to start a chemical reaction
catalyst definition any substance that can increase the rate of a chemical reaction, it lowers the amount of activation energy needed
Oxidation- Reduction Reaction (Redox) a gain and loss of electrons between reactants to form products
polar molecule definition even though water is covalently bonded, there is an uneven distribution of electrons... causing the molecule to have a slight charge.
hydrogen bonding definition the force of attraction between the hydrogen side (+) of water with a substance with a negative charge.
cohesion definition water will bond with other water molecules; creates surface tension; water is constantly breaking and reforming bonds
adhesion definition water will bond to other substances; makes water extremely sticky
capillary action the attraction of water to surfaces that will cause water to rise
high specific heat water has the ability to absorb large quantities of heat
specific heat the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance
Temperature Moderation water does not heat up or cool down rapidly
Density as a solid water is less dense in its solid state than in its liquid
solvent does the dissolving
solute gets dissolved
saturated all molecules of a solvent are bonded with a solute "covered"
unsaturated more solvent than solute (watery)
super-saturated more solvent than solute (
Created by: chathamccloskey