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Biology

QuestionAnswer
What is Energy? the ability to do work.
What is Thermodynamics? study forms of energy in the universe.
What is the First law? Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; only transferred.
What is the Second law? Energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy. Ex. Food chains
What are Autotrophs? Organisms that make their own food.
What is Photosynthesis? Light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell.
What are Heterotrophs? Organisms that need to ingest food to obtain energy.
What is Cellular respiration? Organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell.
What is ATP? Adenosine triphosphate- energy molecule. 3 parts to ATP- Ribose (sugar)- Adenine- 3 phosphates-
What is Phototropism? Growth in response to light.
What is Gravitropism? Growth in response to gravity.
What is Thigmotropism? Growth in response to mechanical stimuli, such as contact with an object, organism, or wind.
What is the plants Epidermis? Covers the top and bottom surfaces of a leaf.
What is Xylem? Carries water (from the roots up the plant).
What is Phloem? Carries sugar (from photosynthesis) throughout the plant.
What is Mesophyll? Contains chloroplasts.
What is Palisade mesophyll? top; has closely packed cells that absorbs light that enters the leaf.
What is Spongy mesophyll? bottom; has many air spaces that help with gas exchange.
What is the Stomata? pores (holes) on epidermis of the leaf, gases may enter or leave here.
What are Guard cells? they regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata.
The Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions) is a series of reactions that stores energy as glucose. GOAL: To make glucose from ATP
Pigments make ATP (energy)
Plant Hormones Organic compounds made in one part of an organism that affect another part of the organism.
What is tropism. is a plant’s growth response to an external stimulus.
Stem Supports: plant’s leaves and reproductive structures Transport: water and dissolved substances Storage: food and water.
Leaf Structure the blade of a leaf has a large surface area for photosynthesis.
capsid outer layer of viruses made of proteins; gives virus protection.
Cytoplasm- semi-fluid material that fills cell.
Cytoskeleton- network of long, thin protein fibers.
Microtubules- form structure.
Microfilaments- helps cell movement.
Created by: BrandonCarlson