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in every ____ people worldwide suffers from an iron deficiency. 5
Woody plants that are vines supported by trees are called ____. lianas
Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, long and dark winters, low-growing plants, and permafrost are characteristics of which of the following? tundra
Scientists are now able to produce desirable traits in some organisms by adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA. This process is known as ____. genetic engineering
Which statistic is not true of women globally? Women have more children if they are educated.
The zone in which you would expect to find deposit feeders along with oysters, clams, and sponges is the ____. abyssal zone
How do the tropical rain forest differ from the temperate deciduous forest? Deciduous forests have a slower rate of decomposition than rain forests.
About ____ of the wood harvested globally each year is burned directly for fuel or converted to charcoal fuel. 75%
Heat is best characterized as a kind of ____ energy. low
In recent years, jellyfish blooms have ____. been rising in numbers
Between 1955 and 2012, the global total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from in less-developed countries from 5 to what level? 2.4
All physical forms of water (solid, liquid, and gas) on or near the earth’s surface make up the ____. hydrosphere
Hemp requires fewer pesticides and yield more pulp per hectare. What other source of pulp provides this benefit? kenaf
Which of the following is classified as a freshwater aquatic life zone? rivers
From the ____ point of view, parasites are harmful, but from the ____ perspective, parasites can promote diversity. host’s; population’s
Aerobic respiration requires ____. glucose and oxygen
What term refers to the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and ecosystem services provided by ecosystems? ecological restoration
Species that provide early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem are called ____. indicator species
What is an example of low-quality energy? heat in the ocean
The very necessary process of breaking down the dead bodies of organisms is a function of ____. detritivores
The earth’s biodiversity is determined by the balance between ____. speciation and extinction
Egg pulling refers to ____. collecting eggs from the wild and hatching them
What is the best explanation for why tropical regions normally receive more precipitation than other areas of the globe? Increased heating increases local evaporation.
Demographers estimate the human population in 2050 to be between 7.8 and 10.8 billion - a range of three billion. Why is the estimated range so wide? Projections are made by a variety of organizations.
The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is the ____. coastal zone
Which term describes species that play crucial roles in helping to keep their ecosystems functioning? keystone
Which of the following does not describe an element of an ecological niche? the place where the species lives
Organisms that feed only on plants are called ____. herbivores
Which human activity is least likely to be a major threat to marine systems? sinking of ships to create artificial reefs
Humans have built dams and levees on many of the world’s rivers to control water flows. These structures ____. cause major river deltas to sink
Rapidly growing countries have an age structure diagram that ____. has a broad-based pyramid
The single ocean on the earth is divided into four parts by the continents. Which of the following is not one of those parts? Baltic
The most far-reaching and controversial environmental law ever adopted requiring the identification of endangered and threatened species is ____. the Endangered Species Act
Which of the following does not belong with the others? taiga, cold forests, boreal forests, evergreen coniferous forests, tropical rain forests
The variety in the genetic makeup of individuals in a population is known as ____. genetic variability
Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent ____. indicator species
In the IPAT equation, the ‘P’ stands for _____. population size
What is an end product of anaerobic respiration? acetic acid
Which activity is least likely to be involved with the sustainable management of freshwater fisheries? facilitating the introduction of commercially important nonnative species
Worldwide, AIDS is the leading cause of death for people _____ years of age. 15-49
The matter and energy laws tell us that we can recycle ____. matter but not energy
What circumstance would decrease the likelihood of a couple having a child? Opportunities for women to participate in education and employment
The typical percentage of high quality energy loss in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about ____. 90%
The replacement-level fertility rate is ____ for developed countries and ____ for developing countries. 2.1; 2.5
Four of the following are ecological and economic services provided by inland wetlands; one is not. Choose the one that is not. stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers
Kelp forests are composed of large concentrations of a(n) ____. Seaweed
Overgrazing occurs when too many animals graze for too long and exceed the carrying capacity of a rangeland area. Overgrazing causes all of the following except ____. increased retention of water
Matter is anything that ____. has mass and takes up space
Today, the ____ is among the most threatened of all species in the world, with only 1,600 to 3,000 individuals left in the wild. giant panda
What are amphibians? vertebrates that live part of their lives in water and part on land
Ocean pollution from plastic items dumped from ships and garbage barges, and left as litter on beaches, kills up to ____ sea birds each year. 1,000,000
Which of the following is an example of an organic compound? CH4
Under certain circumstances, natural selection can lead to an entirely new species. a process called ____. speciation
In lakes, large numbers of decomposers are found in the ____. benthic zone
Oysters, sea stars, and lobsters would be considered what type of organism? benthos
Large regions characterized by a certain climate and dominant plant life are called ____. biomes
An ion has a net positive or negative ______. charge
We know that the introduction of nonnative species often results in unforeseen consequences. This indicates that when introducing nonnative species, we would be well advised to apply the precautionary principle
Several key factors help to determine the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems. What is not one of these? algal bloom
Which of the following represents kinetic energy? water in a stream
The loss of a(n) ____ can lead to population crashes and extinctions of other species in a community that depends on them for certain ecosystem services. keystone species
Plantation agriculture is a form of high-input agriculture that involves growing cash crops and is primarily used in ____. tropical, less-developed countries
The earth has sustained life for ____ years. 3.5 billion
What is the term for the portion of the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere where life is found? biosphere
What is a result of phosphate rich runoff from land? increased growth of algae in streams, lakes, and other water bodies
What is not one of the ecosystem services of rivers? remove silt that accumulates in deltas
Scientists classify energy as either ____. potential or kinetic
Overnutrition and undernutrition are both key factors in which of the following health problems? lower life expectancy
High quality energy is constantly ____. becoming low quality energy
Women are least likely to have fewer and healthier children when ____. they marry at a young age
Which of the following is a method of grassland restoration? use of portable fencing to confine cattle to ungrazed areas
All nonrenewable resources can theoretically be ____. exhausted or depleted
The exponential rate of growth of the total human population over the past 100 years has been a result of ____. sharp drop in death rates
What term describes the large-scale weather phenomenon that occurs when prevailing winds in the Pacific Ocean weaken, resulting in above average warming? ENSO
The use of transmitters and GPS systems are very important in the study of ____. endangered species
A species with a broad niche is considered a(n) ____. generalist species
Although they only occupy 0.2% of the ocean floor, coral reefs provide many benefits. Which of the following is not one of these? They provide significant free oxygen.
In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of the ____. littoral zone
What process adds water until the water table rises and envelops the deep roots of plants, resulting in a loss of productivity and ultimately killing them? waterlogging
There are ____ limits to population growth in nature. always
If grass stores 1,000 energy units received from the sun, the ecological efficiency of the ecosystem is 10%, and the trophic levels are grass → cow → human, how many units of energy does the human receive of the original 1,000 units? 10
What refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate to severe disturbance? resilience
What percentage of the world’s grain production is used to make biofuels such as ethanol for cars? 20%
Which U.S. state is leading the way in establishing marine protected areas where fishing will be banned or strictly limited? California
What species is one of the biggest threats to the Great Lakes? sea lamprey
A high incidence of AIDS in a country is least likely to result in a(n) ____. increase in life expectancy
In some habitats, the extinction of certain amphibian species could lead to the ____ of certain species of other amphibians, aquatic insects, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals. extinction
By 1900, white-tailed deer populations in the U.S. were reduced to about ____, but now, since laws have been passed to protect them and their natural predators have nearly been eliminated, their population is over ____ in the U.S. 50,000; 25 million
Slash and burn agriculture is a type of ____. traditional subsistence agriculture
The estimate of the background extinction rate is thought to be too low. Which explanation for why the estimate may be low is false? The growing human population is using fewer resources per person.
An urban area where people have little or no easy access to nutritious food without traveling long distances is called a(n) ____. food desert
What law states that when matter undergoes a physical or chemical change, no atoms are created or destroyed? The law of conservation of matter
Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the ____. geosphere
The greatest marine biodiversity is located ____. in coral reefs
Which of the following is not a type of inland wetland? marshes, littoral, swamps, prairie potholes, Arctic tundra littoral
A jellyfish would be considered a type of ____. zooplankton
The energy "lost" by a system is ____. converted to lower-quality energy
The rate at which extinctions occurred prior to the evolution of modern humans is called the ____. background extinction rate
CITES is a(n) ____. treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species
Plants such as bromeliads share a commensalism interaction with large trees in tropical and subtropical forests by attaching to the trunks or branches of the trees. The bromeliads are an example of ____. epiphytes
Created by: ccarlough