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Lesson 21 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Passive sentences Complains about something that someone has done.
Passive sentences, book description When you are inconvenienced by something somebody else has done, you can express your dissatistfaction using the passive sentence.
友だちが車を使いました。Vs. 私は友だちに車を使われました。(English translation) A friend of mine used my car. Vs I had my car used by a friend of mine (and I am mad/sad about it).
Passive sentences, book described form, 私は友だちに車を使われました。(Provide the form based on the example, and translate) (victim) は (villain) に (evil act). I had my car used by a friend.
Passive sentences, book description, “victim” affected by an event. Marked with particle は or が.
Passive sentences, book description, “villain” Performs an action which causes the suffering. Marked with に.
Passive sentences, book description, “evil act” described with the passive form of a verb.
Passive form, る-verbs drop -る and add -られ-る
Passive form, う-verbs drop う and add –あれ-る
食べる(give the passive form) 食べられる(give the normal form)
行く(give the passive form) 行かれる(give the normal form)
待つ(give the passive form) 待たれる(give the normal form)
読む(give the passive form) 読まれる(give the normal form)
およぐ(give the passive form) およがれる(give the normal form)
買う(give the passive form) 買われる(give the normal form)
話す(give the passive form) 話される(give the normal form)
死ぬ(give the passive form) 死なれる(give the normal form)
とる(give the passive form) とられる(give the normal form)
あそぶ(give the passive form) あそばれる(give the normal form)
くる(give the passive form) こられる(give the normal form)
する(give the passive form) される(give the normal form)
Passive form, う-verb form ending only in う -われ-る
Passive form, conjugation regular る-verbs
Passive form, comparison to potential る-verb and 来る form the same. う-verb and する different.
Passive forms, how they are used in sentences ”In most passive sentences, the ‘victim’ has been unfavorably affected by the ‘villain’s’ act. They may be unfavorably affected in various ways, such as being angry, embarrassed, sad, and hurt.
私はとなりの人にたばこをすわれました。(English translation) I was annoying with the person sitting nexy to me for smoking.
たけしさんはメアリーさんによく笑われます。(English translation) Takeshi is often laughed at by Mary.
山下先生はだれかにパスワードをぬすまれたそうです。(English translation) I hear that Professor Yamashita had his password stolen by someone.
Passive form, things it can’t be used for adjectives or someone failing to do something.
Compare the inadvertent/unfavorable focus of a passive sentence with the intended/favorable focus of a てもらう sentence 私は友だちににっきを読まれました。(I was annoyed with a friend of mine for reading my diary.) 私は友だちに手紙を読んでもらいました。(I had a friend of mine read the letter for me.)
Passive form, exception on book’s typical interpretation Sometimes passive form is not unfavorable. According to the book, it depends on the specific verb.
Passive form, more info can magnify emotion, make something positive more positive. In some very neutral factual contexts there is no emotion. (maybe that’s a proper description?) In many contexts that would otherwise be neutral but could have a bad interpretation, it’s bad.
私はその人にデートにさそわれました。(English translation) I was asked out by that person for a date.
私は兄に友だちにしょうかいされました。(English translation) I was introduced by my big brother to a friend of his.
私は友だちにパーティーによばれました。(English translation) I was invited by a friend to a party.
その人はみんなにそんけいされています。(English translation) That person is looked up to by most everyone.
Passive form, weather Japanese people tend to say that the rain falling (or snow falling, getting hot, etc.) happened to them, as if it’s the weather’s fault kind of. (Note from class)
Passive form, non-human subjects ”direct passive” rather than “affective passive.” Does not have implication that the inanimate, nonsentient subjects are inconvenienced. Found more commonly in written rather than spoken language.
Passive form, non-human subjects, ここにこうえんが作られます。(English translation) A park will be built here.
Passive form, non-human subjects, このえはピカソによってかかれました。(English translation) The picture was drawn by Picasso.
Passive form, non-human subjects, 南アフリカでワールドカップガひらけました。(English translation) The World Cup was held in South Africa.
Passive form, non-human subjects, human agents followed by によって instead of に.
~てある characterizes a situation that has been brought about on purpose by somebody who remains unnamed in the sentence.
さむいので、ヒーターがつけてあります。(translate to English) The heater is on, becase it is cold. (= The heater was turned on and has been kept that way.)
テーブルの上に本がおいてあります。(translate to English) A book is on the table. (= The book was put on the table and it has remained there ever since.
~てあります can be said if someone, possibly yourself, performed an action on purpose earlier, which can be described in terms of ~ておきました, and if the result of that action can still be observed at this moment.
~てあります, tense ~てあります describes a current state, hence the present tense.
レストランのよやくがしてあります。(translate to English) A restaurant reservation has been made.
レストランのよやくがしてあります。(statement it is a result of) レストランのよやくがしておきました。
レストランのよやくがしておきました。(translate to English) (I) made a reservation in advance.
パンが買ってあります。(translate to English) Bread has been bought (and is ready.)
パンが買ってあります。(statement it is a result of) パンを買っておきました。
パンを買っておきました。(translate to English) (I) bought bred (for future use).
~てある, noun particle and type of verb normally が or は instead of を. Almost always goes with a transitive verb.
てある vs ている Can be compared with ている current states. ている goes with intransitive verbs, while てある goes with transitive.
まどが閉めてあります。(translate and name the purpose of the example) The window has been kept closed. (しめる = transitive)
まどがしまっています。(translate and name the purpose of the example) The windows is closed. (しまる = intransitive)
てある vs ている, example description てある sentences are the result of a human intervention; someone closed it and kept it that way. ている sentences don’t have this implication. Resultant state may or may not be the result of someone doing it.
~間に ”while”
A間にB B takes place, while A.
~間に, most often way event A is described with continuous ている.
おふるに入っている間に電話がありあり増した。(translate to English) There was a phone call while I was taking a bath.
きのうの夜、ねている間にじしんがありました。(translate to English) There was an earthquake while I was asleep last night.
両親が日本にいる間に京とに連れいきたいです。(translate to English) I want to take my parents to Kyoto while they are in Japan.
~間に, verb tense present, even when A describes a situation in the past.
A(ている)間にB B takes place, while A.
~間に, another way to use can also take a noun for A.
るすの間に友だちが来ました。(translate to English) A friend came while I was out.
~間に, usage limitations event B must be of short duration and properly contained within the bounds of activity A.
~間に, additional use If B extends throughout the time when A occurs, use 間 instead of 間に.
ルームメートがメールを書いている間、私は本を読んでまちました。(translate to English) I waited, reading a book, while my roommate was writing an e-mail.
Adjective + する like なる but instead of to become it is to make.
Adjective + する, なる examples さむくなる, 上手になる
つめたい (make into a する construction) つめたくする (make into a plain adjective)
かんたんな(make into a する construction) かんたんにする(make into a plain adjective)
この間の試験はむずかしすぎたので、次の試験はやさしくしてください。(translate to English) Please make the next exam easier, because the last one was too difficult.
みんなで世界をよくしましょう。(translate to English) Let’s jin our forces and make the world a better place.
Adverb conjugation ofいい irregular, よく
部屋をきれいにしました。(translate to English) I made the room clean.
かみをボブ・マーリーみたいにしたいです。(translate to English) I want to make my hair like Bob Marley’s
しずかにする make it quiet. (becomes in order to say “Please be quiet!”) Keep quietしずかにしてください。
~てほしい describes when you want someone to do something.
~てほしい, particles に for the person you want to do something.
私は病気の友だちに元気になってほしいです。(translate to English) I want my sick friend to get well.
私はルームメートに宿題を手つだってほしかったです。(translate to English) I wanted my roommate to help with my homework.
(私は)personに verb te-form ほしい I want (person) to do . . .
~てほしい, negatives when you want to say you don’t want them to do something, you can negate ほしい and say ~てほしくないです or negate the verb and say ~ないでほしいです。
私は音お産に昔の話をしてほしくないです。(translate to English) I don’t want my father to talk about the good old times.
私はホスとファミリーに英語で話さないでほしいです。(translate to English) I don’t want my host family to speak in English.
Three words for “want” 1. たい, verb stem + たい(I want to do); 2. ほし, noun が ほしい (I want something.); 3. てほしい, verb te-form ほしい (I want somebody to do . . .)
私はベトナムに行きたいです。(translate to English) I want to go to Vietnam.
私はいいじしょがほしいです。(translate to English) I want a good dictionary.
私は弟に電話をしてほしいです。(translate to English) I want my little brother to call me.
Three words for “want,” note on usage private predicates. Must add things like と言っています and がっている (instead of い) to talk about what other people want.
Created by: ssfkwong