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Biology 102

Chapter 16

biogeography study of patterns in the geographic distribution of species and communities
comparative morphology the scientific study of similarities and differences in body parts
fossil physical evidence of an organism that lived in the ancient past
catastrophism now-abandoned hypothesis that catastrophic geologic forces unlike those of the present day shaped Earth's surface
evolution change in a line of descent
lineage line of descent
theory of uniformity idea that gradual repetitive processes occurring over long time spans shaped Earth's surfaces
His idea became known as catastrophism Cuvier
His idea was that a species gradually improved over generations because of an inherent drive toward perfection, up the chain of being. Lamarck
Associated with the theory of uniformity Lyell
the economist studying human population growth Malthus
wrote "An essay on the principle of evolution" Malthus
what led naturalists to question traditional ways of interpreting the natural world biogeography, comparative morphology, and geology
what led naturalists to propose that Earth and the species on it had changed over time fossils and other evidence
what made naturalists begin to reconsider the age of the earth fossils and other evidence and the change over time
what changed Darwin's ideas about how evolution occurs his observations of nature during a 5 year voyage around the world
Who correlated increases in the size of human populations with episodes of famine, disease and war? Thomas Malthus
adaptation (adaptive trait) a form of a heritable trait that enhances an individual's fitness in a particular environment.
fitness degree of adaptation to an environment, as measured by an individual's relative genetic contribution to future generations.
natural selection differential survival and reproduction of individuals of a population based on differences in shared, heritable traits.
what process drives evolutionary change natural selection
traits favored in a particular environment are what? adaptive
what was recognized as stone-hard evidence of earlier forms of life fossils
trace fossils (such as footprints, impressions, nests etc) are evidence of what an organism's activity
most fossils are found in layers of what? sedimentary rock
the fossil record will never be complete because why fossils are relatively rare
reveals the age of rocks and fossils radiometric dating
the predictability of a radioactive decay can be used to find the age of what? rock layers and fossils (i.e. volcano)
half-life characteristic time it takes for half of a quantity of a radioisotope to decay
radiometric dating method of estimating the age of a rock or a fossil based on the predictability of radioactive decay
what helps biologists retrace changes in ancient lineages? radiometric dating
over billions of years, movements of Earth's outer layer of rock have changed what? the land, atmosphere, and oceans
all continents that exist today were once part of one huge supercontinent that split into fragments and drifted apart pangea
continental drift the idea that continents move around
supercontinent that existed before pangea, more than 500 millions years ago Gondwana
supercontinent that formed about 270 million years ago Pangea
theory that Earth's outer layer of rock is cracked into plates, the slow movement of which conveys continents to new locations over geologic time plate tectonics theory
explains how continents move plate tectonics theory
chronology of Earth's history geologic time scale
the bones of a bird's wing are similar to the bones in a bat's wing. This observation is an example of what? comparative morphology
evolution is a change in _______ and can occur by _________. a line of descent; natural selection
a trait is adaptive if it what? increases fitness
in what type of rock are you most likely to find a fossil? limestone, composed of sedimented calcium carbonate
the dinosaurs died out how many millions of years ago? 66
on the geologic time scale, life originated in the what? archean
fitness measured by reproductive success
fossils evidence of life in distant past
natural selection survival of the fittest
half-life characteristic of a radioisotope
catastrophism geologic change occurs in unusual major events
uniformtiy geologic changes occurs continuously
forces that cause geologic change include what? erosion, volcanic activity, tectonic plate movement, wind and meteorite impacts
what is the age of the earth? 4.6 bya
first life 3.8 bya (prokaryotic)
up to 541 mya precambrian
since 541 mya phanerozoic
what are the 3 major eras of the phanerozoic? paleozoic, mesozoic, cenozoic
what is the approximate time frame for the paleozoic? 541-251 mya
what is the approximate time frame for the mesozoic? 251-65 mya
what is the approximate time frame for the cenozoic? 65 mya-present
what time frame had major adaptive radiation of marine animals during the cambrian period, the first fishes , amphibians, and reptiles and plants, and the invasion of land by plants, fungi and animals? paleozoic
what time frame had the first mammals, birds and flowering plants, it's the age of reptiles (dinosaurs) and is 65 mya-the extinction of dinosaurs? mesozoic
what time frame is the age of mammals and flowering plants? cenozoic
some of the best evidence that species have changed over time is the presence of what? vistigial body parts
who observed that organisms not only had adapted to their environment but also had passed on those adaptations to their young? Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Lamarck proposed that evolution occurs through what 3 basic steps? 1. organisms are born with certain traits 2. over the course of an organism's life, these traits gradually change due to pressures in the environment 3. the changes that occurred during an organism's life are passed on to its young
when plumes of molten rock from the Earth's interior form new crust on the surface and push plates away from each other, this creates a what? ridge
the plates that are pushed away from each other may slip underneath another plate, pulling one plate down and forming a what? trench
sometimes, molten rock ruptures a tectonic plate, forming a what? hot spot
earthquakes generally occur at ruptures in Earth's surface where two plates meet, called what? fault
Created by: agriffin0727
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