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Biology Semester

Semester 1 Final Study Guide

List characteristics of all living things Contain DNA, Grows and Develops, responds to their environment, made up of cells, can reproduce, evolves, maintains stable internal environment, obtains and uses material/energy
Describe the process of science in terms of trying to answer a question observations to generate questions, inferences to make hypothesis, design controlled experiments (independent and dependent variables), collect data, interpret data, conclusions/findings
What are the goals of science? to provide explanations for events in the natural world. To use those explanations to understand patters and to make predictions about natural events.
Science an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world
Controlled experiment experiment in which only one variable is changed
Chemical Reaction process that changes, or transforms on set of chemical into another set of chemicals
Buffer a solution that resists a change in pH even when acids or bases are added to the solution
species organisms that can reproduce in nature and have fertile offspring
population the number of organisms of a certain species, in a certain place at a certain time,
niche the roll of an organism in the community where it lives. "No 2 organisms can occupy the same niche"
invasive species an exotic species, one that did not evolve in a certain area, will often compete native species for resource.
ecology the study of interactions among organisms and their environment
peer review process of having scientific papers reviewed by anonymous, independent experts
pH scale scale with values from 0-14;measures of H+ in a solution.
<7 pH acids, produce more H+ solution than OH- ions
7pH Neutral, produces equal H+ and OH- ions
>7 pH Bases, produce more OH- ions in a solution than H+ ions
Catalyst a substance that can speed up the rate of a reaction (not necessarily biological)
Hypothesis a testable prediction to a question
Theory well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypothesis
ovservaton information gathered by using ones senses
inferences using background knowledge of a situation, making a logical interpretation of what did happen or may happen
independent variable factor in an experiment that is intentionally changed; what is being tested
dependent variable factor in an experiment that changes as a result of the independent variable
Control variable factors that are not changed in an experiment
reactants elements or compounds that enter a chemical reaction
products elements or compounds formed in a chemical reaction
Solute substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent the dissolving substance in a solution
Covalent bond chemical bond in which elections are shared
ionic bond chemical bond in which electrons are transferred, forming ions
Carbohydrates macro-molecule made of C,H, and O; major source of energy
lipids macro-molecule made of mostly C and H; oils, wax, steroids, and fats; a secondary energy source
proteins macro-molecule made up of C ,H, O and N; used for growth and repair and chemical reactions in the body, monomer; amino acids
nucleic acids macro-molecules made up of H,O, N, C, and P; makes up genetic information
autotroph organism that can capture energy from sun/light or chemicals to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; undergoes photosynthesis
heterothroph organism that must consume/ingest other living things for energy
consumer a heterothroph
producer an autotroph
limiting factor factors that control population size, space, food, competition, mate
density independent cold winters, natural disasters
density dependent competition, disease
Carrying capacity how big a population can get; determined by limiting factors
Prokaryote smaller, most are bacteria, no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, has genetic material, cell wall and cytoplasm
eukaryote larger, "true nucleus", membrane-bound organelles, has genetic material, cytoplasm and cell wall
viruses nonliving; need a host cell; DNA or RNA and protein coat
animal cell eukaryote; has centrioles and several small vacuoles
plant cell eukaryote; has large, central vacuole; has cell walls; has chloroplasts
What is an enzyme? protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions lowers the activation energy needed to start a reaction
What are trophic levels? Steps in a food chain or food web
How is energy passed from one trophic level to the next level? Energy made or consumed by one trophic level is passed to the next level through consumption,
How does energy move in an ecosystem? It only moves in one direction; its lost to the environment as heat
How does nutrients throughout the ecosystem move? It is recycled withing the ecosystem
Parasitism 1 organism benefits and 1 is harmed
Commensalism 1 organism benefits and 1 is unaffected
Mutualism both organisms benefit
3 Parts of Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. Cells come from cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2+6H2O----light----->C6 H12 O6+6O2
Where does a plant obtain CO2? from the atmosphere (through stoma)
Where does a plant obtain H2O? from the ground (through roots and xylem)
What is the equation for Cellular Respiration? 6O2+C6 H12 O6------>6CO2+6H2O
Where does an organism obtain O2? From the atmosphere
Where does an organism obtrain C6 H12 O6? From food
What are the steps of cellular Respiration? Glycolysis --->Krebs Cycle--->Electron transport chain
Passive transport no energy needed;molecules move from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration; diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Diffusion General movement of substances from HIGH to LOW concentration
Osmosis diffusion of water
Facilitated Diffusion diffusion of larger molecules; requires carrier proteins
Active Transport energy is required;molecules move from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration; against the concentration gradiant; endocytosis and exocytosis
Endocytosis particales are engulfed (move into the cell)
Exocytosis particles are ejected (move out of the cell)
Created by: nupara



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