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eff ldrshp & mgmnt

nursing management exam for Excelsior

QuestionAnswer
Absence culture The informal norms within a work unit that determine how employees of that unit view absenteeism.
Absence frequency The total number of distinct absence periods; regardless of their duration.
Attendance barriers The events that affect an employee's ability to attend (e.g.; illness; family responsibilities).
Family and Medical Leave Act ; A federal law stating that employers must provide employees with leave when serious illness or family issues arise; while maintaining insurance and an equal position within the organization.
Involuntary absenteeism ; Absenteeism that is not under the employee's control.
Total time lost The number of scheduled days an employee misses.
Voluntary absenteeism Absenteeism that is under the employee's control.
Workplace violence; Any violent act; including physical assaults and threats of assault; directed toward persons at work or on duty.
Dysfunctional turnover; When nurses who are high quality and are difficult to replace leave the organization.
Floating; The reassignment to a unit other than the one on which the nurse normally works.
Functional turnover; When poorly performing nurses leave the organization.
Horizontal promotion; A program to reward an high-performing employee without promoting the employee to a management position.
Involuntary turnover ; The employee is terminated by the employers.
Mentor ; A more experienced person who guides; supports; and nurtures a less experienced person.
Performance-driven clinical ladder ; A system of using performance indicators to advance an employee within the organization.
Salary compression; The effect of higher starting pay of new nurses or rewarding those with fewer years of experience with higher increases that results in the salaries of long-term employees being at or below those of less-experienced nurses.
Turnover ; The number of staff members who vacate a position
. Voluntary turnover; The employee chooses to leave the organization.
Coaching ; The day-to-day process of helping employees improve their performance.
Confrontation ; A communication technique used to address specific issues.
Discipline; The action taken when a regulation has been violated.
Terminate; To fire an employee.
Absolute judgment ; An evaluation method based on reasonable and acceptable standards set by the organization.
Ambiguous evaluation standards problem; The tendency of evaluators to place differing connotations on rating scale words.
Behavior-oriented rating scales ; A type of scale used in evaluation that focuses on specific behaviors and uses critical incidents grouped into performance dimensions.
Comparative judgment; An evaluation method in which employees are compared with one another.
Critical incidents ; Reports of employee behaviors that are out of the ordinary; either positive or negative.
Essay evaluation ; An evaluation method in which an employee's performance is described through a detailed written narrative.
Forced distribution evaluation ; An evaluation method in which employees are rated in a fixed method; similar to grading on a curve.
Group evaluation ; An evaluation process whereby a group of managers compare individual and group performance to organizational standards.
Halo error ; The failure to differentiate among the various performance dimensions when evaluating.
Leniency error ; The tendency of a manager to overrate staff performance.
Peer review; A process by which other employees assess and judge the performance of professional peers against predetermined standards.
Performance appraisal ; The process of interaction; written documentation; formal interview; and follow-up that occurs between managers and their employees to give feedback; make decisions; and cover fair employment practice law.
Recency error ; The tendency of a manager to rate an employee based on recent events; rather than over the entire evaluation period.
Traditional rating scale ; An evaluation method that uses performance dimensions to rate employees.
Written comments problem ; The tendency of evaluators not to include written comments on appraisal forms.
Adult education theory ; A theory; described by Knowles; that children and adults learn differently.
Content theories ; Motivational theories that emphasize individual needs or the rewards that may satisfy those needs.
Equity; The perception that one's work contribution is rewarded in the same proportion that another person's contribution is rewarded.
Equity theory ; The motivational theory that suggests effort and job satisfaction depend on the degree of equity or perceived fairness in the work situation.
Evaluation ; The investigative process to determine whether outcomes were achieved and to what extent.
Expectancy ; The perceived probability that effort will lead to a specific performance level or behavior.
Expectancy theory; The motivational theory that emphasizes the role of rewards and their relationship to the performance of desired behaviors.
Extinction ; The technique used to eliminate negative behavior; in which a positive reinforcer is removed and the undesired behavior is extinguished.
Goal-setting theory; The motivational theory that suggests that the goal itself is the motivating force.
Implementation ; Bringing together materials; methods; speakers; and learners for education.
Instrumentality ; The belief that a given performance level or behavior will lead to some outcome.
Motivation; The factors that initiate and direct behavior.
Needs assessment ; An evaluation of learning needs in a select population.
On-the-job instruction; An educational method using observation and practice that involves the employees learning new skills after being employed.
Operant conditioning ; Process by which a behavior becomes associated with a particular consequence.
Orientation ; A process by which staff development personnel and managers ease a new employee into the organization by providing relevant information.
Planning; The preparation for learning including obtaining materials and matching learner needs with educational methods.
Preceptor ; An experienced individual who assists new employees in acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills to function effectively in a new environment.
Process theories ; Motivational theories that emphasize how the motivation process works to direct an individual's effort into performance.
Punishment ; A process used to inhibit an undesired behavior by applying a negative reinforcer.
Reinforcement theory (behavior modification) ; The motivational theory that views motivation as learning and proposes that behavior is learned through a process called operant conditioning.
Relapse prevention ; A model that emphasizes learning a set of self-control and coping strategies to increase the retention of newly learned behavior.
Shaping ; The selective reinforcement of behaviors that are successively closer approximations to the desired behavior.
Social learning theory ; A behavioral theory based on reinforcement theory that proposes new behaviors are learned through direct experience or observation that can result in positive or negative outcomes.
Staff development ; The process of enhancing staff performance with specific learning activities.
Valence; The perceived value of an outcome.
Age Discrimination Act ; A law prohibiting discrimination against applicants and employees over the age of 40.
Americans with Disabilities Act ; A law prohibiting discrimination against qualified individuals who have physical or mental impairments that substantially limit one or more of the major life activities.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) ; A characteristic that excludes certain groups from consideration for employment.
Business necessity ; Discrimination or exclusion that is allowed if it is necessary to ensure the safety of workers or customers.
4 Ps of marketing ; Four strategies included in marketing plans; product; place; price; and promotion.
Interrater reliability ; Agreement between two measures by several interviewers.
Interview guide ; A written document containing questions; interviewer directions; and other pertinent information so that the same process is followed and the same basic information is gathered from each applicant.
Intrarater reliability; Agreement between two measures by the same interviewer.
Job analysis; A process that determines and defines the duties and requirements involved in a particular job.
Job specification ; Details the knowledge; skills; and abilities needed; the tasks to be performed; and the behavior required to perform them.
Medium ; The agent of contact between the organization and the potential applicant.
Negligent hiring; Failure of an organization; responsible for the character and actions of all employees; to ascertain the background of an employee.
Personnel decisions ; Decisions that affect the terms; conditions; and privileges of employment.
Validity ; The ability to predict outcomes with some accuracy.
Work sample questions ; Used to determine an applicant's knowledge about work tasks and ability to perform the job.
ARIC (Allocation; Resource; Identification; and Costing); A patient classification system that incorporates patient and classification information with staff activities to generate staffing reports.
Block staffing ; Scheduling a set staff mix for every shift so that adequate staff is available at all times.
Full-time equivalent (FTE) ; The percentage of time an employee works that is based on a 40-hour workweek.
GRASP (Grace Reynolds Application and Study of PETO) ; A patient classification system that identifies direct care activities; determines total hours of care; and projects nursing interventions and required staff.
Medicus ; A patient classification system that clusters patients into five categories of nursing care as predetermined by indicators.
Nursing care hours (NCHs) ; The number of hours of patient care provided per unit of time.
Patient classification systems (PCSs) ; Systems developed to objectively determine workload requirements and staffing needs.
Pools ; Internal or external groups of workers that are used as supplemental staff by the organization.
Self-staffing and scheduling ; A staffing model whereby managers and their staff completely manage staffing and schedules.
Staffing ; The process of balancing the quantity of staff available with the quantity and mix of staff needed by the organization.
Staffing mix ; The type of staff necessary to perform the work of the organization.
Change ; The process of making something different from what it was.
Change agent ; One who works to bring about change.
Driving forces ; Behaviors that facilitate change by pushing participants in the desired direction.
Empirical-rational model ; A change agent strategy based on the assumption that people are rational and follow self-interest if that self-interest is made clear.
Normative-reeducative strategy ; A change agent strategy based on the assumption that people act in accordance with social norms and values.
Power-coercive strategies ; Change agent strategies based on the application of power by legitimate authority; economic sanctions; or political clout.
Restraining forces ; Behaviors that impede change by discouraging participants from making specified changes.
Burnout ; The perception that an individual has used up all available energy to perform the job and feels that he or she doesn't have enough energy to complete the task.
Deficiency focusing ; The habit of focusing on the negatives at the expense of the positives.
Delegation A time-management tool that involves assigning tasks; determining expected results; and transferring responsibility to another individual.
Goals Specific statements of achievement that provide direction; in an organization; goals follow the mission and vision.
Goal setting The relating of current behavior; activities; or operations to the organization's or individual's long-range goals.
Interrole conflict Conflict resulting from incongruence between the different roles an individual might play; such as doing a job and directing others to do the job.
Interruption log Journal of specific information regarding interruptions; analysis of which may help identify ways to reduce interruptions.
Intrarole conflict Conflict resulting from incongruence between one's expectations for performance and one's perception of the resulting performance.
Low skill recognition The tendency not to recognize the role one's own ability has played in producing one's successes.
Necessitating The belief that it is imperative or necessary that a particular task be done by a specific person.
Reality shock The stress; surprise; and disequilibrium experienced when shifting from a familiar culture into one whose values; rewards; and sanctions are different (e.g.; from school culture to work culture).
Role A set of expectations about behavior ascribed to a specific position.
Role ambiguity The frustrations that result from unclear expectations for one's performance.
Role redefinition The clarification of roles and an attempt to integrate or tie together the various roles individuals play.
Stress The nonspecific reaction that people have to threatening demands from the environment.
Time logs Journals of activities that are useful in analyzing actual time spent on specific activities.
Time waster Something that prevents a person from accomplishing a job or achieving a goal.
To-do list A list of responsibilities to be accomplished within a specific time frame.
Clinical information systems Systems used to collect; integrate; and distribute information to the appropriate areas of responsibility.
Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) Automated systems for physicians to enter orders and access decision support.
Expert systems Computer programs that provide inference-generated solutions to aid decision makers.
Hospital information system An integrated system used in health care settings to manage patient information.
Management information system A defined set of techniques to capture and collect data; analytical tools; operating policies and procedures; and reporting and communicating protocols that support decision making.
Nursing information system A component of the integrated hospital system that standardizes nursing records across the system. Online instruction
Personal data assistants (PDAs) Hand-held devices that can be used to access information; enter orders; monitor patients; and complete record keeping.
Telehealth The use of network technology to provide medical; nursing; and other health care through electronic linkages.
Benchmarking The process of comparing data with reliable internal and external sources.
Concurrent audit A nursing audit conducted during the patient's course of care.
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) The process used to improve quality and performance.
Incident report An accurate and comprehensive report on unplanned or unexpected occurrences that could potentially affect a patient; family member; or staff.
Indicator A tool used to measure the performance of structure; process; and outcome standards.
Outcomes management A system in which costs and quality are concurrently and retrospectively measured and evaluated in order to improve clinical practice.
Outcome standards Standards that reflect the desired result or outcome of care.
Peer review An evaluation by practicing nurses who have determined the standards and criteria that indicate quality care.
Process standards Standards connected with the actual delivery of care.
Reportable incident Any unexpected or unplanned occurrence that affects or could potentially affect a patient; family member; or staff.
Retrospective audit A nursing audit conducted after a patient's discharge that involves examining records of a large number of cases.
Risk management A program directed toward identifying; evaluating; and taking corrective action against potential risks that could lead to injury.
Six Sigma Six Sigma is a quality management program that uses measures; goals; and management involvement to monitor performance and ensure progress.
Standards Written statements that define a level of performance or a set of conditions determined to be acceptable by some authority.
Structure standards Standards that relate to the physical environment; organization; and management of an organization. Total quality management (TQM)
A management philosophy that emphasizes a commitment to excellence throughout the organization. Utilization reviews JCAHO-mandated reviews based on the appropriate allocation of resources.
Benefit time Paid time; such as vacation; holidays; and sick days for which there is no work output.
Budget A quantitative statement; usually in monetary terms; of the expectations of a defined area of the organization over a specified period of time in order to manage financial performance.
Budgeting The process of planning and controlling future operations by comparing actual results with planned expectations.
Capital budget A component of the budget plan that includes equipment and renovations needed by an organization in order to meet long-term goals.
Controlling The process of comparing actual results with the results projected in the budget.
Cost center The smallest area of activity within an organization for which costs are accumulated.
Direct costs Expenses that directly affect patient care.
Efficiency variance The difference between budgeted and actual nursing care hours provided.
Expense budget A comprehensive budget that lists salary and nonsalary items that reflect patient care objectives and activity parameters for the nursing unit.
Fiscal year A specified 12-month period during which operational and financial performance is measured.
Fixed budget A budget in which budgeted amounts are set regardless of changes that occur during the year.
Fixed costs Expenses that remain the same for the budget period regardless of the activity level of the organization. Incremental (line-by-line) budget
Indirect costs Necessary expenditures that do not affect patient care directly.
Nonsalary expenditure variance Deviation from the budget as a result of changes in patient volume; supply quantities; or prices paid.
Operating budget The organization's statement of expected revenues and expenses for the upcoming year.
Position control A monitoring tool used to compare actual numbers of employees to the number of budgeted FTEs for the nursing unit.
Profit The difference between revenues and expenses.
Rate variance The difference between budgeted and actual hourly rates paid.
Revenue budget A projection of expected income for a budget period based on volume and mix of patients; rates; and discounts.
Salary (personnel) budget A budget that projects salary costs to be paid and charged to the cost center during the budget period.
Variable budget A budget developed with the understanding that adjustments to the budget may be made during the year.
Variable costs Expenses that depend on and change in direct proportion to patient volume and acuity.
Variance The difference between the amount that was budgeted for a specific cost and the actual cost.
Volume variances Differences in the budget as a result of increases or decreases in patient volume.
Zero-based budget A budgetary approach that assumes the base for projecting next year's budget is zero; managers are required to justify all activities and every proposed expenditure.
Additive task A task in which group performance depends on the sum of individual performance.
Adjourning The final stage of group development in which a group dissolves after achieving its objectives.
Cohesiveness The degree to which the members are attracted to the group and wish to retain membership in it.
Committees or task forces Groups that deal with specific issues involving several service areas.
Competing groups Groups in which members compete for resources or recognition.
Conjunctive task A task in which the group succeeds only if all members succeed.
Disjunctive task A task in which the group succeeds if one member succeeds.
Divisible task Tasks that can be broken down into subtasks with division of labor.
Formal committees Committees in an organization with authority and a specific role.
Formal groups Clusters of individuals designated by an organization to perform specified organizational tasks.
Forming The initial stage of group development; in which individuals assemble into a well-defined cluster.
Group An aggregate of individuals who interact and mutually influence each other.
Hidden agendas A group member’s individual; unspoken objectives that interfere with commitment or enthusiasm.
Informal committees Committees with no delegated authority that are organized for discussion.
Informal groups Groups that evolve from social interactions that are not defined by an organizational structure.
Norming The third stage of group development; in which group members define goals and rules of behavior.
Norms Informal rules of behavior shared and enforced by group members.
Ordinary interacting groups Common types of groups; generally have formal leader and are run according to an informal structure with the purpose of solving a problem or making a decision.
Performing The fourth stage of group development; in which group members agree on basic purposes and activities and carry out the work.
Pooled interdependence A type of interdependence in which each individual contributes to the group but no one contribution is dependent on any other.
Productivity A measure of how well the work group or team uses the resources available to achieve its goals and produce its services.
Real (command) groups Groups that accomplish tasks in an organization and are recognized as legitimate organizational entities.
Reciprocal interdependence A type of interdependence in which members must coordinate their activities with every other individual in the group.
Re-forming A stage of group development in which the group reassembles after a major change in the environment or in the goals of the group that requires the group to refocus its activities.
Role A set of expectations about behavior ascribed to a specific position in society.
Sequential interdependence A type of interdependence in which members must coordinate their activities with others in some designated order.
Status The social ranking of individuals relative to others in a group based on the position they occupy.
Status incongruence The disruptive impact that occurs when factors associated with group status are not congruent.
Storming The second stage of group development; in which group members develop roles and relationships; competition and conflict generally occur.
Task forces Ad hoc committees appointed for a specific purpose and a limited time.
Task group Several individuals who work together to accomplish specific time-limited assignments.
Team building A group development technique that focuses on task and relationship aspects of a group’s functioning in order to build team cohesiveness.
Teams Real groups in which people work cooperatively with each other in order to achieve some goal.
Accountability The act of accepting ownership for the results or lack thereof.
Authority The right to act or empower.
Delegation The process by which responsibility and authority are transferred to another individual.
Overdelegation A common form of ineffective delegation that occurs when the delegator loses control over a situation by giving too much authority or responsibility to the delegate.
Responsibility An obligation to accomplish a task.
Reverse delegation A common form of ineffective delegation that occurs when someone with a lower rank delegates to someone with more authority.
Underdelegation A common form of ineffective delegation that occurs when full authority is not transferred; responsibility is taken back; or there is a failure to equip and direct the delegate.
Work allocation The assignment of tasks that reflect job descriptions and requirements.
Accommodating An unassertive; cooperative tactic used in conflict management when individuals neglect their own concerns in favor of others' concerns.
Avoiding A conflict management technique in which the participants deny that conflict exists.
Collaboration All parties work together to solve a problem.
Competing An all-out effort to win; regardless of the cost.
Competitive conflict A type of conflict that is resolved through competition; in which victory for one side and loss for the other side is determined by a set of rules.
Compromise A conflict management technique in which the rewards are divided between both parties.
Conflict The consequence of real or perceived differences in mutually exclusive goals; values; ideas; attitudes; beliefs; feelings; or actions.
Confrontation The most effective means of resolving conflict; in which the conflict is brought out in the open and attempts are made to resolve it through knowledge and reason.
Consensus A conflict strategy in which a solution that meets everyone's needs is agreed upon.
Disruptive conflict A type of conflict in which winning is not emphasized and there is no mutually acceptable set of rules; parties involved are engaged in activities to reduce; defeat; or eliminate the opponent.
Felt conflict The feelings of opposition within the relationship of two or more parties.
Forcing A conflict management technique that forces an immediate end to conflict but leaves the cause unresolved.
Integrative decision making A conflict strategy that focuses on the means of solving a problem rather than the ends.
Lose-lose strategy A conflict strategy in which neither side wins; the settlement reached is unsatisfactory to both sides.
Negotiation A conflict management technique in which the conflicting parties give and take on various issues.
Perceived conflict One's perception of the other's position in a conflict.
Resolution The stage of conflict that occurs when a mutually agreed-upon solution is arrived at and both parties commit themselves to carry out the agreement.
Smoothing Managing conflict by complimenting one's opponent; downplaying differences; and focusing on minor areas of agreement.
Suppression A technique used to manage conflict in which one party is eliminated through transfer or termination. occurs when one person or group defeats the other or only the dominant side is committed to the agreement; the loser may or may not carry out the agreem
Win-lose strategy A strategy used during conflict in which one party exerts dominance and the other submits and loses.
Win-win strategy A conflict strategy that focuses on goals and attempts to meet the needs of both parties.
Withdrawal The removal of at least one party from the conflict; making it impossible to resolve the situation.
Communication A complex; ongoing; dynamic process in which the participants simultaneously create shared meaning in an interaction.
Diagonal communication Communication involving individuals at different hierarchical levels
Downward communication Communication; generally directive; given from an authority figure or manager to staff.
Fogging A communication technique in which one agrees with part of what was said.
Intersender conflict Difficulty in interpreting the intended meaning of a message due to two conflicting messages received from differing sources.
Intrasender conflict Difficulty in interpreting the intended meaning of a message due to incongruity between verbal and nonverbal communication.
Lateral communication Communication that occurs between individuals at the same hierarchical level.
Metacommunications Nonverbal messages in communication; including body language and environmental factors.
Negative assertion A communication technique in which one accepts some blame for what was said.
Negative inquiry A communication technique used to clarify objections and feelings (e.g.; I don't understand ... ).
Upward communication Communication that occurs from staff to management.
Adaptive decisions The type of decisions made when problems and alternative solutions are somewhat unusual and only partially understood.
Affinity map A tool used to identify problems.
Artificial intelligence Computer technology that can diagnose problems and make limited decisions.
Brainstorming A decision-making method in which group members meet and generate diverse ideas about the nature; cause; definition; or solution to a problem.
Critical thinking A process of examining underlying assumptions; interpreting and evaluating arguments; imagining and exploring alternatives; and developing reflective criticism for the purpose of reaching a reasoned; justifiable conclusion.
Decision making A process whereby appropriate alternatives are weighed and one is ultimately selected.
Delphi technique A decision making technique in which judgments on a particular topic are systematically gathered from participants who do not meet face-to-face.
Descriptive (bounded) rationality model A decision-making process that emphasizes the limitations of the rationality of the decision maker and the situation.
Dialectical inquiry A technique used to minimize groupthink through the use of a formal debate format.
Experimentation A type of problem solving in which a theory is tested to enhance knowledge; understanding; or prediction.
Expert systems Computer programs that provide complex data processing; reasoning; and decision making.
Groupthink A negative phenomenon occurring in highly cohesive; isolated groups in which group members come to think alike; which interferes with critical thinking.
Innovative decisions The type of decisions made when problems are unusual and unclear and creative solutions are necessary.
Mindguards A feature of groupthink in which the group is "protected" from controversial information.
Nominal group technique (NGT) A decision-making technique that elicits written questions; ideas; and reactions from group members.
Objective probability The likelihood that an event will or will not occur based on facts and reliable information.
Political decision-making model A decision-making process in which the particular interests and objectives of powerful stakeholders influence how problems and objectives are defined.
Premature concurrence seeking A result of groupthink caused by pressure to conform; self-censorship; mindguards; and apparent unanimity.
Probability The likelihood that an event will or will not occur.
Probability analysis A calculation of the expected risk made to accurately determine the probabilities of each alternative.
Problem solving A process whereby a dilemma is identified and corrected.
Rational (normative) decision-making model A decision-making process based on logical; well-grounded rational choices that maximize the achievement of objectives.
Risky shift A phenomenon seen in groups in which riskier; more controversial decisions are made.
Routine decisions The type of decisions made when problems are relatively well defined and common and when established rules; policies; and procedures can be used to solve them.
Satisficing A decision-making strategy whereby the individual chooses a less than ideal alternative that meets minimum standards of acceptance.
Statistical aggregation A decision-making technique in which individuals are polled regarding a specific problem and their responses are tallied.
Subjective probability The likelihood that an event will or will not occur based on a manager's personal judgment and beliefs.
Trial-and-error method A method whereby one solution after another is tried until the problem is solved or appears to be improving.
Connection power Power based on an individual's formal and informal links to influential or prestigious persons within and outside an organization.
Expert power Power based on the manager's possession of unique skills; knowledge; and competence.
Information power Power based on an individual's access to valued data.
Legitimate power A manager's right to make requests because of authority within an organizational hierarchy.
Personal power Power based on an individual's credibility; reputation; expertise; experience; control of resources or information; and ability to build trust.
Policy Decisions that govern action and determine an organization's relationships; activities; and goals.
Politics A means of influencing the allocation of scarce resources; events; and the decisions of others.
Position power Power of an individual that is determined by the job description; assigned responsibilities; recognition; advancement; authority; the ability to withhold money; and decision making.
Power The potential ability to influence in order to achieve goals.
Power plays Power plays are attempts by others to diminish or demolish their opponents.
Punishment (coercive) power Power based on penalties a manager might impose if the individual or group does not comply with authority.
Referent power Power based on admiration and respect for an individual.
Reward power Power based on inducements offered by the manager in exchange for contributions that advance the manager's objectives.
Administrative laws Laws made by administrative agencies.
Advance directive A document that allows the competent patient to make choices regarding health care prior to its need.
Allocation The decision of a society about how much of its resources will be devoted to a particular effort.
Autonomy The right of individuals to take action for themselves.
Beneficence/nonmaleficence The duty to help others by doing what is best for them without inflicting evil or harm.
Common law Laws derived from earlier decisions made by courts.
Confidentiality The right to privacy of records.
Distributive justice Giving a person that which is deserved.
Durable power of attorney for health care decisions A document that permits an individual to give a surrogate or proxy the authority to make decisions for that person in the event that she or he becomes incompetent.
Ethics The science that deals with the principles of right and wrong; good and bad; it governs our relationships with others and is based on personal beliefs and values.
Informed consent The consent for treatment given by a patient after three requirements are met; the individual has the capacity to consent; consent is voluntary; and the individual receives information regarding treatment in a manner that is understandable to him or her.
Intentional torts Action in which the intent to harm was present.
Job reassignment The process of pulling or floating nurses from one area of the hospital to another.
Laws Rules of conduct; established and enforced by authority; which prohibit extremes in behavior so that one can live without fear for oneself or one's property.
Living will An advance directive that indicates what an individual wants done regarding treatment or lifesaving measures in the future.
Malpractice Professional negligence that refers to any misconduct or lack of skill in carrying out professional responsibilities.
National Practitioner Data Bank An information clearinghouse for reporting adverse action against health care professionals.
Negligence The unintentional failure of an individual to perform or not perform an act that a reasonable person would or would not perform in a similar set of circumstances.
Patient Self-Determination Act A federal law requiring every health care facility receiving Medicare or Medicaid to provide written information to adult patients concerning their right to make health care decisions.
Personal liability The responsibility and accountability of individuals for their own actions or inactions.
Private law The domains of tort law; contract law; and protecting and reporting law.
Public law The domains of constitutional law; administrative law; and criminal law.
Rationing The process by which decisions are made about who will get the resources and who will not.
Respondeat superior The legal principle that allows the court to hold an employer responsible for the actions of an employee when performing services for the organization.
Statutory laws Laws enacted by the legislative branch of government.
Tort law A law that addresses wrongful acts; whether unintentional or intentional; against a person or property.
Vicarious liability The assignment of negligence to certain parties; whose negligence is assumed due to their association with a negligent person.
Achievement-oriented leadership A leadership style that includes goal setting and maintaining high levels of performance in order to motivate employees.
Autocratic leadership A leadership style that assumes individuals are motivated by external forces; therefore; the leader makes all the decisions and directs the followers' behavior.
Bureaucratic leadership A leadership style that assumes individuals are motivated by external forces; leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decisions and therefore relies on organizational policies and rules.
Charge nurse An expanded staff nurse role with increased responsibility and the function of liaison to the nurse manager.
Charismatic leadership Leadership based on valued personal characteristics and beliefs.
Contingency planning The reactive or proactive identification and management of problems that arise.
Controlling The process of establishing standards of performance; determining the means to be used in measuring performance; evaluating performance; and providing feedback.
Democratic leadership A leadership style that assumes individuals are motivated by internal forces; leader uses participation and majority rule to get work done.
Directing The process of getting the work within an organization done.
Directive leadership A leadership style that involves telling employees expectations; giving guidance; ensuring adherence to rules; and scheduling work efforts.
Expectancy The perceived probability that effort will result in successful performance.
First-level manager The manager responsible for supervising nonmanagerial personnel and day-to-day activities of specific work units.
Formal leadership Leadership that is exercised by an individual with legitimate authority conferred by position within the organization.
Informal leadership Leadership that is exercised by an individual who does not have a specified management role.
Instrumentality The perceived probability that performance will lead to desired outcomes.
Laissez-faire leadership A leadership style that assumes individuals are motivated by internal forces and should be left alone to complete work; leader provides no direction or facilitation.
Leader Someone who uses interpersonal skills to influence others to accomplish specific goals.
Manager An individual employed by an organization who is responsible for efficiently accomplishing the goals of the organization.
Middle-level manager A manager who supervises first-level managers within a specified area and is responsible for the people and activities within those areas; generally acts as liaison between first-level and upper-level management.
Organizing The process of coordinating the work to be done within an organization.
Participative leadership A leadership style that involves consultation with subordinates in decision making.
Planning A four-stage process that includes decision making and problem solving in order to achieve specific goals.
Quantum leadership A leadership style based on the concepts of chaos theory.
Relational (connective) leadership A leadership style that values collaboration and teamwork; interpersonal skills are used to promote collegiality in achieving organizational goals.
Servant leadership The premise that leadership originates from a desire to serve; a leader emerges when others' needs take priority.
Shared leadership An organizational structure in which several individuals share the responsibility for achieving the organization's goals.
Strategic planning The process of defining and prioritizing long-term objectives of an organization and developing strategies for implementation.
Supportive leadership A leadership style that focuses on the needs of employees.
Transactional leadership A leadership style based on principles of social exchange theory in which social interaction between leaders and followers is essentially economic and success is achieved when needs are met; loyalty is enhanced; and work performance is enhanced.
Transformational leadership A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary change in organizations through a commitment to the organization's vision.
Upper-level management The top level to whom middle management reports; primarily responsible for establishing organizational goals and strategic plans for entire division of nursing.
Valence The probability that desired outcomes will lead to a valued reward.
Case management A model for identifying; coordinating; and monitoring the implementation of services needed to achieve desired patient care outcomes within a specified period of time.
Critical pathways Tools or guidelines that direct care by identifying expected outcomes.
Differentiated practice A nursing care delivery system that maximizes nursing resources by focusing on the structure of nursing roles according to education; experience; and competency.
Functional nursing A nursing care delivery system in which the needs of patients are broken down into tasks and assigned to caregivers.
Patient-centered care A nursing care delivery system that is unit-based and consists of patient care coordinators; patient care associates; unit support assistants; administrative support personnel; and a nurse manager.
Practice partnership A nursing care delivery system in which senior and junior staff members share patient care responsibilities.
Primary nursing A nursing care delivery system in which one nurse is responsible and accountable for the nursing care of specific patients for the duration of their stay.
Team nursing The most common delivery system; nursing staff are divided into teams; which are responsible for the care of a group of patients.
Total patient care The original model of nursing care delivery; in which one RN is responsible for all aspects of one or more patients' care.
Bureaucracy A term proposed by Max Weber to define the ideal; intentionally rational; most efficient form of organization.
Capitation A fixed monthly fee for providing services to enrollees.
Chain of command The hierarchy of authority and responsibility within the organization.
Diversification The expansion of an organization into new arenas of service.
Downsizing Cutting the number of positions in an organization.
Goals Specific statements of achievement that provide direction.
Hawthorne effect The tendency for people to perform as expected because of special attention.
Heterarchy A relational design based on the concept of connections.
Horizontal integration Arrangements between or among organizations that provide the same or similar services.
Input Resources such as employees; patients; materials; money; and equipment.
Joint venture A partnership in which each partner contributes different areas of expertise; resources; or service to create a new product or service.
Line authority The linear hierarchy of supervisory responsibility and authority.
Mission A general statement of the purpose of an organization.
Objectives Statements of achievement specific to abilities within the organization.
Organization A collection of people working together under a defined structure to achieve predetermined outcomes.
Organizational climate The perceived characteristics of an organization.
Organizational culture The norms and traditions within an organization.
Output The product of a work process.
Philosophy The mission; values; and vision of an organization.
Redesign A technique that examines the tasks within each job with the goal of combining appropriate tasks to improve efficiency.
Reengineering A complex and often radical approach to the organization of patient care in which new relationships and expectations are adopted.
Restructuring An examination of a health care organization’s structure to improve the organization’s productivity.
Shared governance An organizational paradigm based on the values of interdependence and accountability that allows nurses to make decisions in a decentralized environment.
Span of control The number of employees that can be effectively supervised by a single manager.
Staff authority The advisory relationship in which responsibility for actual work is assigned to others.
Strategic planning A process of long-range and ongoing planning for the future.
Strategies Actions by which objectives are to be achieved.
Throughput The work process to produce a product.
Values The beliefs or attitudes one has about people; ideas; objects; or actions that form a basis for behavior.
Vertical integration An arrangement between or among dissimilar but related organizations to provide a continuum of services.
Vision statement A description of the goal to which an organization aspires.
Benchmarking A method of comparing performance using identified quality indicators across institutions or disciplines.
Diagnosis-related group A system of prospective payment used by Medicare that pays a provider a set amount for a specific condition.
Integrated health care networks Organizational health care structures that deliver a continuum of care; provide coverage for a group of individuals; and accept fixed payments for that group.
Quality management A preventive approach designed to address problems efficiently and quickly.
Telehealth Using telecommunications technology to provide medical and nursing services from afar.
Bargaining agent A union certified by the NLRB to conduct labor negotiations for a group of individuals.
Certification to contract A process by which a union; certified by the NLRB as a bargaining agent; can enter into a contract with an employer that has been voted on by the union membership.
Collective bargaining Collective action taken by workers to secure better wages or working conditions.
Decertification The process of changing union affiliation or removing the union altogether.
Grievances Formal expressions of complaints; generally classified as misunderstandings; contract violations; or an inadequate labor agreement.
Ratification Passage of the contract by a simple majority vote of the union membership.
Representation election The process of establishing a union through the selection of a bargaining agent certified to conduct labor negotiations for a group of individuals.
Strike The organized stoppage of work by employees within the union. Electronic health record
Evidence-based practice Applying the best scientific evidence to a patient’s unique diagnosis; condition;and situation to make clinical decisions.
Integrated health care networks Organizational health care structures that deliver a continuum of care; provide coverage for a group of individuals; and accept fixed payments for that group
Leapfrog Group a consortium of public and private purchasers that provide benefits to more than 37 million Americans in all 50 states
Remote care p using technology to provide medical and nursing services from afar
Robotics using robots to deliver supplies and remote care
Goals specific statements of outcomes that are to be achieved
Magnet recognition program Recognition by the ANCC that the organization provides quality nursing care
Organizational environment The systemwide conditions that contribute to a positive or negative work setting
Clinical microsystems a small unit of care that maintains itself over time.
Clinical nurse leader a lateral integrator of care responsible for a specified group of clients within a microsytem of the health care setting
Followership interactive and complementary relationship to leadership
Transitions the periods of time between the current situation and when change is implemented
Lean Six Sigma a quality program that focuses on improving process flow and eliminating waste
Stakeholders people or groups with a direct interest in the work of an organization
Assignment allocating tasks appropriate to the individual’s job description
Resistance a behavior that can be positive or negative and may mean a resistance to change or disobedience; or it may be an effective approach to handling power differences
Job enlargement a flatter organizational structure that causes positions to be combined and results in managers having more employees to supervise
Diagnosis-related groups systems of prospective payments used by Medicare that pay a provider a set amount for a specific condition
Personnel budget also known as the salary budget; projects the costs that will be paid and charged to the cost center in the budget period
Volume variances differences in the budget as a result of increases or decreases in patient volume
Zero-based budget a budgetary approach that assumes the base for projecting next year’s budget is zero; managers are required to justify all activities and every proposed expenditure
Behavioral interviewing interview questions that use the candidate’s past performance and behaviors to predict behavior on the job
Demand management a system that uses best-practices protocols to predict the demand for nursing expertise several days in advance
Peer coaching using partners; who have both participated in the educational program; to observe each other practicing the skill; ask appropriate questions during the demonstration; and offer feedback about the performance
Ambiguous evaluation standards problem the tendency of evaluators to place differing connotations on rating scale words
Progressive discipline the process of increasingly severe warnings for repeated violations that can result in termination
Coach an individual who helps the staff member focus on solving a specific problem or conflict that interferes with the employee’s satisfaction at work.
Presenteeism an employee is at work although disabled by physical or mental illness
Compassion fatigue secondary traumatic stress experienced by caregivers
Intrarole conflict conflict resulting from incongruence between one’s expectations for performance and one’s perception of the resulting performance
Activity log an ongoing record of professional progress; including; educational programs; training; certifications; and accomplishments
Mentor a more experienced person who guides; supports; and nurtures a less experienced person
Résumé a written record of your educational achievements; employment; and accomplishments
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