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HB3_muscular system

Muscular system

TermDefinition
ATPase enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP to ADP
acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter that binds at a motor end-plate to trigger depolarization of the sarcolemma
actin protein that makes up most of the thin filaments in a sarcomere
atrophy loss of structural proteins from muscle fibers
cardiac muscle striated muscle found in the heart; cells are joined to one another at intercalated discs and under the regulation of pacemaker cells, which contract as one unit to pump blood through the circulatory system. Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control.
concentric contraction type of isotonic muscle contraction that shortens the muscle to move a load
contractility ability to shorten (contract) forcibly
contraction phase in a twitch, the contraction phase is when muscle tension increases
depolarize to reduce the voltage difference between the inside and outside of a cell’s plasma membrane, making the inside less negative than at rest
eccentric contraction type of isotonic muscle contraction that lengthens the muscle as the tension is diminished
elasticity ability to stretch and rebound
endomysium loose, and well-hydrated connective tissue covering each muscle fiber in a skeletal muscle
epimysium outer layer of connective tissue around a skeletal muscle
excitability ability to undergo neural stimulation
excitation-contraction coupling sequence of events from motor neuron signaling to a skeletal muscle fiber to contraction of the fiber’s sarcomeres
extensibility ability to lengthen (extend)
fascicle bundle of muscle fibers within a skeletal muscle enclosed by the perimysium
graded muscle response modification of contraction strength due to the variation of frequency of the nerve impulses
hypertonia abnormally high muscle tone
hypertrophy addition of structural proteins to muscle fibers
hypotonia abnormally low muscle tone caused by the absence of low-level contractions
intercalated disc part of the sarcolemma that connects cardiac tissue, and contains gap junctions and desmosomes
isometric contraction muscle contraction that occurs with no change in muscle length
isotonic contraction muscle contraction that involves changes in muscle length
latent period the time when a twitch does not produce contraction. The time required for the depolarization to be propagated along the sarcolemma and Ca2+ ions to be released from the SR.
motor end-plate sarcolemma of muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction, with receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
motor unit motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers it innervates
muscle tension force generated by the contraction of the muscle; tension generated during isotonic contractions and isometric contractions
muscle tone low levels of muscle contraction that occur when a muscle is not producing movement
myofibril long, cylindrical organelle that runs parallel within the muscle fiber and contains the sarcomeres
myosin protein that makes up most of the thick filament within a sarcomere
neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the section of the membrane of a muscle fiber with receptors for the acetylcholine
neurotransmitter signaling chemical released by nerve terminals that bind to and activate receptors on target cells
perimysium connective tissue that bundles skeletal muscle fibers into fascicles within a skeletal muscle
power stroke action of myosin pulling actin toward the center of a sarcomere (M line)
recruitment increase in the number of motor units involved in contraction
relaxation phase in a twitch it is the period after contraction when tension decreases
sarcolemma plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber
sarcomere longitudinally, repeating functional unit of skeletal muscle, with all of the contractile and associated proteins involved in contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which stores, releases, and retrieves Ca2+
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle cell
satellite cell stem cell that helps to repair muscle cells
skeletal muscle striated, multinucleated muscle that requires signaling from the nervous system to trigger contraction; most skeletal muscles are referred to as voluntary muscles that move bones and produce movement
smooth muscle non-striated, mono-nucleated muscle in the skin that is associated with hair follicles; assists in moving materials in the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, and internal passageways
synaptic cleft space between a nerve (axon) terminal and a motor end-plate
T-tubule projection of the sarcolemma into the interior of the cell
tetanus a continuous fused contraction
thick filament the thick myosin strands and their multiple heads projecting from the center of the sarcomere toward, but not all to way to, the Z-discs
thin filament thin strands of actin and its troponin-tropomyosin complex projecting from the Z-discs toward the center of the sarcomere
triad the grouping of one T-tubule and two terminal cisternae
tropomyosin regulatory protein that covers myosin-binding sites to prevent actin from binding to myosin
troponin regulatory protein that binds to actin, tropomyosin, and calcium
twitch single contraction produced by one action potential
voltage-gated sodium channels membrane proteins that open sodium channels in response to a sufficient voltage change, and initiate and transmit the action potential as Na+ enters through the channel
wave summation addition of successive neural stimuli to produce greater contraction and a higher muscle tension.
abduct move away from midline
abductor moves the bone away from the midline
adductor moves the bone toward the midline
agonist (also, prime mover) muscle whose contraction is responsible for producing a particular motion
antagonist muscle that opposes the action of an agonist
biceps brachii two-headed muscle that crosses the shoulder and elbow joints to flex the forearm
extensor muscle that increases the angle at the joint
fixator synergist that assists an agonist by preventing or reducing movement at another joint, thereby stabilizing the origin of the agonist
flexion movement that decreases the angle of a joint
flexor muscle that decreases the angle at the joint
origin end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to another structure (usually a bone) in a fixed position
insertion end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to the structure (usually a bone) that is moved when the muscle contracts
synergist muscle whose contraction helps a prime mover in an action
triceps brachii three-headed muscle that extends the forearm
Created by: SaraLUNEX