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Nutrition Final

QuestionAnswer
Recommended intake Iron 19-50 yrs. women- 18 mg/day, men - 8 mg/day
Recommended intake zinc 19-50 yrs of age women-8 mg/day, men- 110 mg/day
RDA Copper 19-50 yrs. 90 ug/day
RDA Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 19-50 yrs- 1.3 mg/day
RDA Folate (Folic Acid) 19 yrs or older- 400 ug/day
RDA Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) 19 yrs- 2.4 ug/day
RDA Vitamin K 19-50 yrs. women- 75 mg/day, men- 120 ug/day
RDA Vitamin C 19 yrs- women- 75 mg/day, men- 90 mg/day, smokers extra 35 mg more per day than RDA
RDA Calcium 19-50 yrs- 1000 mg/day, women 51 yrs- and older- 1200 mg/day, men 51-70 yrs- 1000 mg/day, 70 yrs and older- 1200 mg/day
RDA Phosphorus 19 yrs of age and older- 700 mg/day
RDA Magnesium 19-30 yrs- women-310 mg/day, men- 400 mg/day, 31 yrs n older- women-320 mg/day, men- 420 mg/day
RDA Fluoride 19 yrs n older- women- 3 mg/day, men- 4 mg/day
RDA Vitamin D 19-70 yrs.- 600 IU/day, based on the assumption that a person does not get adequate sun exposure, 71 yrs n older- 800 IU/day
Identify the contributions of three trace minerals to blood health Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
Erythrocytes (RBC) are Cells that transport oxygen
Leukocytes (WBC) are Key to our immune function. They defend against infection and the progression of cancer
Platelets are Cell fragments that assist in the formation of blood clots and helps stop bleeding
Plasma is Watery matrix of blood which the cells and platelets flow. Circulation of blood is critical to life, it transports oxygen and nutrients to our cells, removes carbon dioxide and other waste products generated from metabolism.
Micronutrients are required for what Healthy blood
Trace mineral iron plays the leading role in Enabling blood cells to transport oxygen
Most common deficiency in the world according to World Health Oranization Iron deficiency
Trace mineral iron is needed ? In very small amounts
2/3 iron in body is Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is The oxygen carrying protein in our RBC
Hemoglobin molecule 4 polypeptide chains each with an iron containing heme group.
Blood stream is Iron acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen inhaled into the lungs, binding it during transport in RBC and then dropping it off again in body tissues.
Iron is also a component of Myoglobin, Protein similar to hemoglobin but found in muscle cells.
Myoglobin is Iron assists in the transport of oxygen into muscle cells.
Hemoglobin is a ? Protein
Iron is also found in enzymes called Cytochromes
Cytochromes are Active in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Mitochondria More than 12 of these iron requiring enzymes help produce energy, iron necessary for enzymes involved in DNA, synthesis, plays important role in cognitive development and immune health.
Iron part of an antioxidant enzyme system that assists in fighting what Free radicals
Leukocytes (WBC) Protect us from infection and illness
Platelets are Cell fragments that assist in the formation of blood clots and help stop bleeding
Plasma is Fluid portion of the blood, needed to maintain adequate blood volume so that the blood can flow easily throughout our body.
Hemoglobin is Oxygen carrying protein in our RBC almost two-thirds of all the iron in our body is found in hemoglobin
Heme is Iron containing protein similar to hemoglobin except that it is found in muscle cells
Myoglobin is
Prooxidant is Substance that promotes oxidation and oxidative cell and tissue damage
What is responsible for prooxidant? Liver and spleen and is a iron recycling program, which greatly reduces the body’s reliance on dietary iron.
What percentage of the iron released from hemoglobin breakdown is reused by the body. 85%
Heme is Iron that is a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin found only in animal based foods, such as meat, fish, and poultry
Non-heme iron is Form of iron that is not a part of hemoglobin or myoglobin, found in animal and plant based foods.
Meat factor is Special factor found in meat, fish, and poultry that enhances the absorption of non heme iron.
Iron absorption is Iron status- iron stores are high, amount of iron absorbed in the diet is low, iron absorption with poor iron status.
Stomach acid is Adequate amounts of stomach acid are necessary for iron absorption . People with low levels of stomach acid have a decreased ability to absorb iron.
Bioavailability is Degree to which the body can absorb and utilize any given nutrient
Anemia is Without blood
Iron deficiency anemia is Form of anemia that results from severe iron deficiency
Sickle Cell Anemia is Genetic disorder in which the red blood cells have a sickle or “half moon” shape, and thalassemia- genetic disorder in which RBC are small and short lived.
Thalassemia is Genetic disorder in which RBC are small and short lived
Hemorrhagic anemia is Result from blood loss.
What are other anemia’s a result of Micronutrients deficiencies. They can be classified according to the general way they alter the size and shape of the RBC
What causes microcytic anemia (small RBC) Low iron, copper, and vitamin B6
What causes microcytic anemia (large RBC) Inadequate intakes of folate or Vitamin B12.
Three functions of Zinc are Enzymatic functions, structural functions and regulatory functions
Enzymatic functions are Zinc is required for more than 300 different enzymes in the body. Without zinc, these enzymes can’t function zinc for digestion and metabolism and to synthesis the heme structure of hemoglobin. Zinc contributes to the the maintenance of blood health.
Structural function are If proteins lose their shape, they lose their function. Zinc helps to stabilize the structure of proteins involved in gene expression, vision, antioxidant enzyme systems and immune function.
What can fight the common cold. Zinc lozenges
Regulatory Functions are Zinc helps regulate gene expression and thus the body functions that these genes control. Without zinc certain genes that help regulate cell division during fetal development are not expressed. After child is born growth is stunted.
What is increased during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence? Zinc absorption
High non-heme iron intakes can? Inhibit zinc absorption primary concern with iron supplements (non-heme)
What strongly inhibits zinc absorption Phytates and fiber found in whole grains and beans
Zinc deficiency in the middle eastern men Low consumption of meat and high consumption of beans and flat breads high in phytates.
The what added to leavened breads reduced the phytate content Yeast
In an atom, the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have what kind of charge? Negative
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding free radicals? Our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals
Which of the following diseases has not been linked to free radical damage? A. Arthritis B. Cancer C. Heart disease D. Type 1 diabetes C. Heart disease
What water -soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized? Vitamin C
What nutrient requires the MOST frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores? Vitamin C
The spongy bone that is found within the ends of long bones is called Trabecular
Bone cells that are responsible for bone resorption are called? Osteoclasts
The average person will absorb no more than how many mg of calcium at one time? 500
A T-score +1 (plus 1) and -1(minus 1) on a DXA signifies Normal bone density
If a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, what would most likely happen? Toxicity symptoms, including nausea and dizziness
Erythrocytes is Red blood cells
Leukocytes are White blood cells, key to our immune function
Platelets are Cell fragments that assist in the formation of blood clots
Plasma is The watery matrix of blood in which the cells and platelets flow.
Created by: LWHITE35