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anticoagulant drugs

heparin, LMWH,

QuestionAnswer
What are anticoagulants drugs that prevent clots from forming to maintain or restore circulation
do anticoagulants dissolve existing clots NO
What are the two types of anticoagulants Parenteral & Oral
What is the prototype drug for parenteral anticoagulants heparin
How is heparin administered SubQ injection in the abdomen / sites rotated / Never Aspirate
When is heparin ( parenteral anticoagulant) given only in the hospital
Why is heparin only given to patients in the hospital it puts the patient at a high risk for bleeding, and requires frequent PTT monitoring
Before you can take a patient off of heparin what has to be done they are started on coumadin(warfin) the oral anticoagulant
What are LMWH (low molecular weight heparins) a form of heparin that provides equivalent action but has lower risk of bleeding, requires less frequent doses,and monitoring due to longer 1/2 life
What is the most common LMWH enoxaprin (lovenox)
Other LMWH are fragmin, normiflo, orgaran, innohep
Can a patient use LMWH at home YES, b/c less risk of bleeding, pt.& family can be taught how to administer it.
How long are patients usually on heparin short term 7-14days at 1-2 doses a day
What conditions require prompt heparin (anticoagulant)therapy evolving ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, massive DVT, DIC
What is a ischemic stroke the blood supply is cut off from the brain
what is the only anticoagulant given during pregnancy & why heparin, it will not cross the placenta
What are some common prophylactic reasons for giving heparin after hip/knee replacement, or abdominal surgery to prevent clots from forming
What is DIC when several microemboli form the body uses all its clotting factors,& the blood thins, pt bleeds from any exit
How can heparin help DIC it stops the body from clotting and reverses the problem which is the formation of several small clots
After a acute MI heparin is given with thrombolytics to prevent clots from forming
What are the side effects of heparin hemorrhage, dose related bone demineralization, thrombocytopenia, hypersensitivity reactions
What are the signs of hemorrhage increased HR..decreased BP..brusing, petechiae, hematomas, black tarry stool
What should you do for a overdose of heparin (anticoagulant) stop heparin, give protamine sulfate, avoid aspirin, monitor PTT (keep <2X base)
What is the antidote for heparin protamine sulfate
What can dose related bone demineralization from use of heparin cause osterprosis
If your patient is going to be taking heparin at home you must teach S/S of bleeding, to use safety razors, electric razors, & soft toothbrushes
What are the Nursing Interventions for heparin monitor PTT,CBC, platelet count, HCT,read label closely to avoid overdose, Always double check dose w/another nurse, use infusion pump for cont.IV.
When heparin is given via continuous IV how often should you monitor the rate q30 - 60 min.
How often do you check PTT with heparin therapy q4-6 hrs until dose is regulated, then daily
How do you give heparin SubQ use 1/2 inc, 25-26 gauge needle, inject into the abdomen 2inc from umbilicus, DO NOT aspirate, & rotate sites
What OTC drug should never be taken with heparin (parenteral anticoagulant) aspirin
It is important to check OTC drug labels when on heparin because many contain aspirin (sylicia)
What herbs when taken with heparin increase the risk for bleeding dong quai, fever few, garlic, ginger, ginko, black haw, chamomile, & bilberry
What herbs when taken with heparin decrease the effects of heparin anise, ginseng, alfalfa, goldenseal, valerian
What is the normal PTT level 60-80 seconds
What is the action of oral anticoagulants inhibit synthesis of vitamin K, and affects clotting factors
Anticoagulants are primarily used for venous thrombosis
How do you know if the patient has thrombocytopenia platlet count will be < 100,000
What should be done if a heparin patient has thrombocytopenia anticoagulant therapy using non heparin agents should be used
what are examples of non heparin parentral anticoagulants refludan & acova
What are the S/S of hypersensitivity to anticoagulants (heparin) chills, fever, urticaria (hives)
What is urticaria hives
what should be done to prevent hypersensitivity reactions a small test does before giving heparin
Created by: leseanne