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Terms 6.3-6.6

QuestionAnswer
trait characteristic that is inherited
genetics study of the hereditary patterns and variation of organisms
purebred type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform
cross mating of two organisms
law of segregation Mendel's first law, stating that: 1. organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent 2. organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate in gamete formation
gene specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome
homozygous characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
heterozygous characteristic of having two different alleles that appear at the same locus of sister chromatids
genome all of an organism's genetic material
genotype collection of all an organism's genetic information that codes for traits
phenotype collection of all an organism's physical characteristics
dominant allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype
recessive allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype
Punnett square model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross, or mating
monohybrid cross cross, or mating, between organisms involving only one pair of contrasting traits
testcross cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
dihybrid cross cross, or mating, between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
law of independent assortment Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from each other during gamete formation
probability likelihood that a particular event will happen
crossing over exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis 1
genetic linkage tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Created by: HeilersA21