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HB2_skeletal system

Skeletal system

QuestionAnswer
articular cartilage thin layer of cartilage covering an epiphysis; reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber
articulation where two bone surfaces meet
bone hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
canaliculi channels within the bone matrix that house one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it uses to communicate and receive nutrients
cartilage semi-rigid connective tissue found on the skeleton in areas where flexibility is required and where smooth surfaces facilitate movement
central canal longitudinal channel in the center of each osteon; contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canal
compact bone dense osseous tissue that can withstand compressive forces
diaphysis tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone
endosteum delicate membranous lining of a bone’s medullary cavity
epiphyseal line completely ossified remnant of the epiphyseal plate (also, growth plate)
epiphysis wide section at each end of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrow
external callus collar of hyaline cartilage and bone that forms around the outside of a fracture
flat bone thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs
fracture hematoma blood clot that forms at the site of a broken bone
fracture broken bone
hematopoiesis production of blood cells, which occurs in the red marrow of the bones
hypercalcemia condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium
hypocalcemia condition characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium
internal callus fibrocartilaginous matrix, in the endosteal region, between the two ends of a broken bone
irregular bone bone of complex shape; protects internal organs from compressive forces
lacunae spaces in a bone that house an osteocyte
long bone cylinder-shaped bone that is longer than it is wide; functions as a lever
medullary cavity hollow region of the diaphysis; filled with yellow marrow
modeling process, during bone growth, by which bone is resorbed on one surface of a bone and deposited on another
osseous tissue bone tissue; a hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton
osteoblast cell responsible for forming new bone
osteoclast cell responsible for resorbing bone
osteocyte primary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrix
osteogenic cell undifferentiated cell with high mitotic activity; the only bone cells that divide; they differentiate and develop into osteoblasts
osteon (also, Haversian system) basic structural unit of compact bone; made of concentric layers of calcified matrix
osteoporosis disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass; occurs when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation, a common occurrence as the body ages
perforating canal channel that branches off from the central canal and houses vessels and nerves that extend to the periosteum and endosteum
perichondrium membrane that covers cartilage
periosteum fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of bone and continuous with ligaments
proliferative zone region of the epiphyseal plate that makes new chondrocytes to replace those that die at the diaphyseal end of the plate and contributes to longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate
red marrow connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where hematopoiesis takes place
remodeling process by which osteoclasts resorb old or damaged bone at the same time as and on the same surface where osteoblasts form new bone to replace that which is resorbed
reserve zone region of the epiphyseal plate that anchors the plate to the osseous tissue of the epiphysis
sesamoid bone small, round bone embedded in a tendon; protects the tendon from compressive forces
short bone cube-shaped bone that is approximately equal in length, width, and thickness; provides limited motion
skeletal system organ system composed of bones and cartilage that provides for movement, support, and protection
spongy bone (also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distribution
trabeculae spikes or sections of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone
yellow marrow connective tissue in the interior cavity of a bone where fat is stored
zone of calcified matrix region of the epiphyseal plate closest to the diaphyseal end; functions to connect the epiphyseal plate to the diaphysis
zone of maturation and hypertrophy region of the epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes from the proliferative zone grow and mature and contribute to the longitudinal growth of the epiphyseal plate
axial skeleton central, vertical axis of the body, including the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
appendicular skeleton bones that are located within the limbs themselves, and the girdle bones that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
abduction movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb laterally away from the body; spreading of the fingers
adduction movement in the coronal plane that moves a limb medially toward or across the midline of the body; bringing fingers together
cartilaginous joint oint at which the bones are united by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
extension movement that increases the angle of a joint (straightens the joint)
fibrous joint joint where the articulating areas of the adjacent bones are connected by fibrous connective tissue
flexion movement that decreases the angle of a joint (bends the joint)
joint cavity space enclosed by the articular capsule of a synovial joint that is filled with synovial fluid and contains the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones
ligament strong band of dense connective tissue spanning between bones
synovial fluid thick, lubricating fluid that fills the interior of a synovial joint
synovial joint joint at which the articulating surfaces of the bones are located within a joint cavity formed by an articular capsule
tendon dense connective tissue structure that anchors a muscle to bone
uniaxial joint joint that allows for motion within only one plane (one axis)
biaxial joint joint that allows for movements within two planes (two axes)
multiaxial joint a joint that allows for movements within three planes (three axes)
Created by: SaraLUNEX